SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Lange, P., Nyboe, J., Jensen, G., Schnohr, P., Appleyard, M. (1991) Ventilatory function impairment and risk of cardiovascular death and of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Eur Respir J. 4: 10801087.
  • 2
    Schunemann, HJ, Dorn, J., Grant, BJB, Winkelstein, W., Jr, Trevisan, M. (2000) Pulmonary function is a long-term predictor of mortality in the general population: 29-year follow-up of the Buffalo Health Study. Chest. 118: 656664.
  • 3
    Mannino, DM, Buist, AS, Petty, TL, Enright, PL, Redd, SC (2003) Lung function and mortality in the United States: data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey follow up study. Thorax. 58: 388393.
  • 4
    Sin, DD, Wu, LL, Man, SFP (2005) The relationship between reduced lung function and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based study and a systematic review of the literature. Chest. 127: 19521959.
  • 5
    Stavem, K., Aaser, E., Sandvik, L., et al (2005) Lung function, smoking and mortality in a 26-year follow-up of healthy middle-aged males. Eur Respir J. 25: 618625.
  • 6
    Lazarus, R., Sparrow, D., Weiss, ST (1998) Baseline ventilatory function predicts the development of higher levels of fasting insulin and fasting insulin resistance index: the Normative Aging Study. Eur Respir J. 12: 641645.
  • 7
    Lawlor, DA, Ebrahim, S., Smith, GD (2004) Associations of measures of lung function with insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes: findings from the British Womens Heart and Health Study. Diabetologia. 47: 195203.
  • 8
    Yeh, HC, Punjabi, NM, Wang, NY, Pankow, JS, Duncan, BB, Brancati, FL (2005) Vital capacity as a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Diabetes Care. 28: 14721479.
  • 9
    Engstrom, G., Hedblad, B., Nilsson, P., Wollmer, P., Berglund, G., Janzon, L. (2003) Lung function, insulin resistance and incidence of cardiovascular disease: a longitudinal cohort study. J Intern Med. 253: 574581.
  • 10
    Schroeder, EB, Welch, VL, Couper, D., et al (2003) Lung function and incident coronary heart disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol. 158: 11711181.
  • 11
    Hanson, RL, Imperatore, G., Bennett, PH, Knowler, WC (2002) Components of the “metabolic syndrome” and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 51: 31203127.
  • 12
    Klein, BE, Klein, R., Lee, KE (2002) Components of the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in beaver dam. Diabetes Care. 25: 17901794.
  • 13
    Pyorala, M., Miettinen, H., Halonen, P., Laakso, M., Pyorala, K. (2000) Insulin resistance syndrome predicts the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in healthy middle-aged men: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 20: 538544.
  • 14
    Isomaa, B., Almgren, P., Tuomi, T., et al (2001) Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 24: 683689.
  • 15
    Lakka, HM, Laaksonen, DE, Lakka, TA, et al (2002) The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA. 288: 27092716.
  • 16
    Ford, ES, Giles, WH, Dietz, WH (2002) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 287: 356359.
  • 17
    Panagiotakos, DB, Pitsavos, C., Chrysohoou, C., et al (2004) Impact of lifestyle habits on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Greek adults from the ATTICA study. Am Heart J. 147: 106112.
  • 18
    Eckel, RH, Grundy, SM, Zimmet, PZ (2005) The metabolic syndrome. Lancet. 365: 14151428.
  • 19
    Park, HS, Oh, SW, Cho, SI, Choi, WH, Kim, YS (2004) The metabolic syndrome and associated lifestyle factors among South Korean adults. Int J Epidemiol. 33: 328336.
  • 20
    Tan, CE, Ma, S., Wai, D., Chew, SK, Tai, ES (2004) Can we apply the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel definition of the metabolic syndrome to Asians? Diabetes Care. 27: 11821186.
  • 21
    Shen, YH, Yang, WS, Lee, TH, Lee, LT, Chen, CY, Huang, KC (2005) Bright liver and alanine aminotransferase are associated with metabolic syndrome in adults. Obes Res. 13: 12381245.
  • 22
    Alberti, KG, Zimmet, PZ (1998) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications: I. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabetic Med. 15: 539553.
  • 23
    Balkau, B., Charles, MA (1999) Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation: European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diabetic Med. 16: 442443.
  • 24
    Maison, P., Byrne, CD, Hales, CN, Day, NE, Wareham, NJ (2001) Do different dimensions of the metabolic syndrome change together over time? Evidence supporting obesity as the central feature. Diabetes Care. 24: 17581763.
  • 25
    Reaven, GM (2002) Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 206: 286288.
  • 26
    Cheal, KL, Abbasi, F., Lamendola, C., McLaughlin, T., Reaven, GM, Ford, ES (2004) Relationship to insulin resistance of the adult treatment panel III diagnostic criteria for identification of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 53: 11951200.
  • 27
    Huang, KC, Lin, WY, Lee, LT, et al (2002) Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 26: 10601068.
  • 28
    National Cholesterol Education Program (2001) Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 285: 24862497.
  • 29
    Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Daniels, SR, et al (2005) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation. 112: 27352752.
  • 30
    American Thoracic Society (1995) American Thoracic Society: standardization of spirometry, 1994 update. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 152: 11071136.
  • 31
    Evans, SE, Scanlon, PD (2003) Current practice in pulmonary function testing. Mayo Clin Proc. 78: 758763.
  • 32
    Kannel, WB, Cupples, LA, Ramaswami, R., Stokes, J., 3rd, Kreger, BE, Higgins, M. (1991) Regional obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease; the Framingham Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 44: 183190.
  • 33
    Chinn, DJ, Cotes, JE, Reed, JW (1996) Longitudinal effects of change in body mass on measurements of ventilatory capacity. Thorax. 51: 699704.
  • 34
    Lazarus, R., Gore, CJ, Booth, M., Owen, N. (1998) Effects of body composition and fat distribution on ventilatory function in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 68: 3541.
  • 35
    Carey, IM, Cook, DG, Strachan, DP (1999) The effects of adiposity and weight change on forced expiratory volume decline in a longitudinal study of adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 23: 979985.
  • 36
    Canoy, D., Luben, R., Welch, A., et al (2004) Abdominal obesity and respiratory function in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk Study, United Kingdom. Am J Epidemiol. 159: 11401149.
  • 37
    Ford, ES, Mannino, DM (2004) Prospective association between lung function and the incidence of diabetes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study. Diabetes Care. 27: 29662970.
  • 38
    Collins, LC, Hoberty, PD, Walker, JF, Fletcher, EC, Peiris, AN (1995) The effect of body fat distribution on pulmonary function tests. Chest. 107: 12981302.
  • 39
    Sahebjami, H., Gartside, PS (1996) Pulmonary function in obese subjects with a normal FEV1/FVC ratio. Chest. 110: 14251429.
  • 40
    Li, AM, Chan, D., Wong, E., Yin, J., Nelson, EAS, Fok, TF (2003) The effects of obesity on pulmonary function. Arch Dis Child. 88: 361363.
  • 41
    Considine, RV, Sinha, MK, Heiman, ML, et al (1996) Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. N Engl J Med. 334: 292295.
  • 42
    Donahue, RP, Prineas, RJ, Donahue, RD, et al (1999) Is fasting leptin associated with insulin resistance among nondiabetic individuals? The Miami Community Health Study. Diabetes Care. 22: 10921096.
  • 43
    Zimmet, P., Boyko, EJ, Collier, GR, de Courten, M. (1999) Etiology of the metabolic syndrome: potential role of insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and other players. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 892: 2544.
  • 44
    Huang, KC, Lin, RC, Kormas, N., et al (2004) Plasma leptin is associated with insulin resistance independent of age, body mass index, fat mass, lipids, and pubertal development in nondiabetic adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 28: 470475.
  • 45
    Sin, DD, Man, SFP (2003) Impaired lung function and serum leptin in men and women with normal body weight: a population based study. Thorax. 58: 695698.
  • 46
    Rutter, MK, Meigs, JB, Sullivan, LM, D'Agostino, RB, Wilson, PWF (2004) C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation. 110: 380385.
  • 47
    Ridker, PM, Buring, JE, Cook, NR, Rifai, N. (2003) C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14719 initially healthy American women. Circulation. 107: 391397.
  • 48
    Kony, S., Zureik, M., Driss, F., Neukirch, C., Leynaert, B., Neukirch, F. (2004) Association of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and lung function with C-reactive protein (CRP): a population based study. Thorax. 59: 892896.
  • 49
    Gan, WQ, Man, SFP, Sin, DD (2005) The interactions between cigarette smoking and reduced lung function on systemic inflammation. Chest. 127: 558564.
  • 50
    Hankison, JL, Odencrantz, JR, Fedan, KB (1999) Spirometric reference values from a sample of the general U.S. population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 159: 179187.
  • 51
    Mannino, DM, Gagnon, RC, Petty, TL, Lydick, E. (2000) Obstructive lung disease and low lung function in adults in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med. 160: 16831689.
  • 52
    Attvall, S., Fowelin, J., Lager, I., Von Schenck, H., Smith, U. (1993) Smoking induces insulin resistance: a potential link with the insulin resistance syndrome. J Intern Med. 233: 327332.
  • 53
    Park, YW, Zhu, S., Palaniappan, L., Heshka, S., Carnethon, MR, Heymsfield, SB (2003) The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med. 163: 427436.
  • 54
    Lynch, J., Helmrich, SP, Lakka, TA, et al (1996) Moderately intense physical activities and high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness reduce the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. Arch Intern Med. 156: 13071314.
  • 55
    Brunner, EJ, Marmot, MG, Nanchahal, K., et al (1997) Social inequality in coronary risk: central obesity and the metabolic syndrome: evidence from the Whitehall II study. Diabetologia. 40: 13411349.
  • 56
    Laukkanen, JA, Lakka, TA, Rauramaa, R., et al (2001) Cardiovascular fitness as a predictor of mortality in men. Arch Intern Med. 161: 825831.
  • 57
    Laaksonen, DE, Lakka, HM, Salonen, JT, Niskanen, LK, Rauramaa, R., Lakka, TA (2002) Low levels of leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness predict development of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 25: 16121618.
  • 58
    Lakka, TA, Laaksonen, DE, Lakka, HM, et al (2003) Sedentary lifestyle, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 35: 12791286.
  • 59
    Rosell, M., De Faire, U., Hellenius, ML (2003) Low prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in wine drinkers–is it the alcohol beverage or the lifestyle? Eur J Clin Nutr. 57: 227234.