Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Fat and Lean Mass in Childhood
Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012
2006 North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASO)
Volume 14, Issue 12, pages 2284–2293, December 2006
How to Cite
Leary, S. D., Smith, G. D., Rogers, I. S., Reilly, J. J., Wells, J. C.K. and Ness, A. R. (2006), Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Fat and Lean Mass in Childhood. Obesity, 14: 2284–2293. doi: 10.1038/oby.2006.268
- Issue published online: 6 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012
- Received for review May 22, 2006, Accepted in final from July 25, 2006
- Smoking during pregnancy;
- fat mass;
- lean mass;
- partner smoking
Objective: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with obesity in the offspring, but findings have been based mainly on BMI, which is derived from height and weight. This study examined the association between maternal and partner smoking during pregnancy and offspring total fat, truncal fat, and lean mass in childhood.
Research Methods and Procedures: Analysis was based on 5689 white singletons born in 1991–1992 and enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, with maternal smoking data recorded for at least one trimester in pregnancy and their own body composition assessed by DXA at mean age 9.9 years.
Results: Smoking at any time during pregnancy was associated with higher offspring BMI [0.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.25) standard deviation units] and total fat mass [0.17 (95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.23) standard deviation units], after adjustment for age, sex, height, and height squared for total fat mass. These associations were not attenuated by adjustment for the confounding factors that were measured. Maternal smoking was also associated with lean mass and, to a lesser extent, truncal fat mass. Associations with partner's smoking were in the same direction but weaker than those of the mother's for all outcomes.
Discussion: Maternal smoking at any time during pregnancy is associated with higher offspring total fat mass at mean age 9.9 years. However, as the associations with partner smoking were only a little weaker than those with maternal smoking, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking is a possible explanation.