SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Forbes, GB. (1987) Human Body Composition: Growth, Aging, Nutrition, and Activity Springer-Verlag New York.
  • 2
    Garrow, JS. (1978) Energy Balance and Obesity in Man Elsevier Biomedical Press Oxford, United Kingdom.
  • 3
    Webster, J. D., Hesp, R., Garrow, JS. (1984) The composition of excess weight in obese women estimated by body density, total body water and total body potassium. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 38: 299306.
  • 4
    Yang, M. U., Van Itallie, TB. (1976) Composition of weight lost during short-term weight reduction. Metabolic responses of obese subjects to starvation and low-calorie ketogenic and non-ketogenic diets. J Clin Invest. 58: 722730.
  • 5
    Ballor, D. L., Poehlman, ET. (1994) Exercise-training enhances fat-free mass preservation during diet-induced weight loss: a meta-analytical finding. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 18: 3540.
  • 6
    Passmore, R., Strong, J. A., Ritchie, FJ. (1958) The chemical composition of the tissue lost by obese patients on a reducing regimen. Br J Nutr. 12: 113122.
  • 7
    Pietrobelli, A., Allison, D. B., Heshka, S., et al (2002) Sexual dimorphism in the energy content of weight change. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 26: 13391348.
  • 8
    Wishnofsky, M. (1952) Caloric equivalent of gained or lost weight. Metabolism. 1: 554555.
  • 9
    Zhang, Y., Proenca, R., Maffei, M., Barone, M., Leopold, L., Friedman, JM. (1994) Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372: 425432.
  • 10
    Pelleymounter, M. A., Cullen, M. J., Baker, M. B., et al (1995) Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Science. 269: 540543.
  • 11
    Dubuc, PU. (1996) Transient postweaning expression of excessive fat deposition and diabetes mellitus in ob/ob mice. Growth Dev Aging. 60: 145151.
  • 12
    Dubuc, P. U., Cahn, P. J., Willis, P. (1984) The effects of exercise and food restriction on obesity and diabetes in young ob/ob mice. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 8: 271278.
  • 13
    Heymsfield, S. B., Greenberg, A. S., Fujioka, K., et al (1999) Recombinant leptin for weight loss in obese and lean adults: a randomized, controlled, dose-escalation trial. JAMA. 282: 15681575.
  • 14
    Farooqi, I. S., Jebb, S. A., Langmack, G., et al (1999) Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. N Engl J Med. 341: 879884.
  • 15
    Montague, C. T., Farooqi, I. S., Whitehead, J. P., et al (1997) Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature. 387: 903908.
  • 16
    Gibson, W. T., Farooqi, I. S., Moreau, M., et al (2004) Congenital leptin deficiency due to homozygosity for the Delta133G mutation: report of another case and evaluation of response to four years of leptin therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 89: 48214826.
  • 17
    Farooqi, I. S., Keogh, J. M., Kamath, S., et al (2001) Partial leptin deficiency and human adiposity. Nature. 414: 34
  • 18
    Strobel, A., Issad, T., Camoin, L., Ozata, M., Strosberg, AD. (1998) A leptin missense mutation associated with hypogonadism and morbid obesity. Nat Genet. 18: 213215.
  • 19
    Ozata, M., Ozdemir, I. C., Licinio, J. (1999) Human leptin deficiency caused by a missense mutation: multiple endocrine defects, decreased sympathetic tone, and immune system dysfunction indicate new targets for leptin action, greater central than peripheral resistance to the effects of leptin, and spontaneous correction of leptin-mediated defects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 84: 36863695.Erratum 2000;85:416.
  • 20
    Licinio, J., Caglayan, S., Ozata, M., et al (2004) Phenotypic effects of leptin replacement on morbid obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, and behavior in leptin-deficient adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 101: 45314536.
  • 21
    Tylavsky, F., Lohman, T., Blunt, B. A., et al (2003) The QDR 4500A dual energy x-ray absorptiometer overestimates fat-free mass compared to criterion methods. J Appl Physiol. 94: 959965.
  • 22
    Schoeller, D. A., Tylavsky, F. A., Baer, D. J., et al (2005) QDR 4500A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer underestimates fat mass in comparison with criterion methods in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 81: 10181025.
  • 23
    Withers, R. T., Laforgia, J., Heymsfield, SB. (1999) Critical appraisal of the estimation of body composition via two-, three-, and four-compartment models. Am J Hum Biol. 11: 175185.
  • 24
    Sopher, A. B., Thornton, J. C., Wang, J., Pierson, R. N. Jr., Heymsfield, S. B., Horlick, M. (2004) Measurement of percentage of body fat in 411 children and adolescents: a comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with a four-compartment model. Pediatrics. 113: 12851290.
  • 25
    Mott, J. W., Wang, J., Thornton, J. C., Allison, D. B., Heymsfield, S. B., Pierson, R. N. Jr. (1999) Relation between body fat and age in 4 ethnic groups. Am J Clin Nutr. 69: 10071013.
  • 26
    Deurenberg, P., Weststrate, J. A., Seidell, JC. (1991) Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age- and sex-specific prediction formulas. Br J Nutr. 65: 105114.
  • 27
    Ruhl, C. E., Everhart, JE. (2001) Leptin concentrations in the United States: relations with demographic and anthropometric measures. Am J Clin Nutr. 74: 295301.
  • 28
    Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L., Storer, TW. (2003) Androgen effects on body composition. Growth Horm IGF Res. 13: (Suppl A), S63S71.
  • 29
    Mauras, N., Hayes, V., Welch, S., et al (1998) Testosterone deficiency in young men: marked alterations in whole body protein kinetics, strength and adiposity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 83188692.
  • 30
    Brodsky, I. G., Balagopal, P., Nair, KS. (1996) Effects of testosterone replacement on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis in hypogonadal men—a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 81: 34693475.
  • 31
    Tenover, JL. (2000) Experience with testosterone replacement in the elderly. Mayo Clin Proc. 75: S77S81.
  • 32
    Forbes, GB. (1992) Exercise and lean weight: the influence of body weight. Nutr Rev. 50: 157161.
  • 33
    Forbes, GB. (1987) Lean body mass-body fat interrelationships in humans. Nutr Rev. 45: 225231.
  • 34
    Forbes, GB. (1970) Weight loss during fasting: implications for the obese. Am J Clin Nutr. 23: 12121219.
  • 35
    Sainsbury, A., Schwarzer, C., Couzens, M., et al (2002) Y4 receptor knockout rescues fertility in. Genes Dev. 16: 10771088.
  • 36
    Halaas, J. L., Gajiwala, K. S., Maffei, M., et al (1995) Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene. Science 269: 543546.
  • 37
    Lalonde, J., Samson, P., Poulin, S., Deshaies, Y., Richard, D. (2004) Additive effects of leptin and topiramate in reducing fat deposition in lean and obese ob/ob mice. Physiol Behav. 80: 415420.
  • 38
    Kaibara, A., Moshyedi, A., Auffenberg, T., et al (1998) Leptin produces anorexia and weight loss without inducing an acute phase response or protein wasting. Am J Physiol. 274: R1518R1525.
  • 39
    Ioffe, E., Moon, B., Connolly, E., Friedman, JM. (1998) Abnormal regulation of the leptin gene in the pathogenesis of obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 95: 1185211857.