• 1
    Willett, WC. (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press New York.
  • 2
    Ellis, K. J., Bell, S. J., Chertow, G. M., et al (1999) Bioelectrical impedance methods in clinical research: a follow-up to the NIH Technology Assessment Conference. Nutrition 15: 874880.
  • 3
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1996) National Center for Health Statistics. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994) CDROM Center for Disease Control Washington, DC.
  • 4
    Houtkooper, L. B., Lohman, T. G., Going, S. B., Howell, WH. (1996) Why bioelectrical impedance analysis should be used for estimating adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr. 64(suppl),. 436S448S.
  • 5
    Segal, K. R., Van Loan, M., Fitzgerald, P. I., Hodgdon, J. A., Van Itallie, TB. (1988) Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis: a four-site cross-validation study. Am J Clin Nutr. 47: 714.
  • 6
    Van Loan, M., Mayclin, P. (1987) Bioelectrical impedance analysis: is it a reliable estimator of lean body mass and total body water. Hum Biol. 59: 299309.
  • 7
    Jebb, S. A., Cole, T. J., Doman, D., Murgatroyd, P. R., Prentice, AM. (2000) Evaluation of the novel Tanita body-fat analyser to measure body composition by comparison with a four-compartment model. Br J Nutr. 83: 115122.
  • 8
    Roubenoff, R. (1996) Applications of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition to epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 64: 459S462S.
  • 9
    Wattanapenpaiboon, N., Lukito, W., Strauss, B. J., Hsu-Hage, B. H., Wahlqvist, M. L., Stroud, DB. (1998) Agreement of skinfold measurement and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in estimating total body fat in Anglo-Celtic Australians. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 22: 854860.
  • 10
    Young, R. E., Sinha, DP. (1992) Bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measure of body composition in a West Indian population. Am J Clin Nutr. 55: 10451050.
  • 11
    Chumlea, W. C., Guo, S. S., Kuczmarski, R. J., et al (2002) Body composition estimates from NHANES III bioelectrical impedance data. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 26: 15961609.
  • 12
    Lohman, TG. (1992) Advances in Body Composition Assessment. Current Issues in Exercise Science Series Human Kinetics Publishers Champaign, IL.
  • 13
    Willett, W. C., Dietz, W. H., Colditz, GA. (1999) Guidelines for healthy weight. N Engl J Med. 341: 427434.
  • 14
    Hotelling, H. (1940) The selection of variates for use in prediction with some comments on the general problem of nuisance parameters. Ann Math Stat. 11: 271283.
  • 15
    Deurenberg, P., Smit, H. E., Kusters, CS. (1989) Is the bioelectrical impedance method suitable for epidemiological field studies? Eur J Clin Nutr. 43: 647654.
  • 16
    Heitmann, BL. (1990) Prediction of body water and fat in adult Danes from measurement of electrical impedance. A validation study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 14: 789802.
  • 17
    Gray, D. S., Bray, G. A., Gemayel, N., Kaplan, K. (1989) Effect of obesity on bioelectrical impedance. Am J Clin Nutr. 50: 255260.
  • 18
    Stolarczyk, L. M., Heyward, V. H., Hicks, V. L., Baumgartner, RN. (1994) Predictive accuracy of bioelectrical impedance in estimating body composition of Native American women. Am J Clin Nutr. 59: 964970.
  • 19
    Spiegelman, D., Israel, R. G., Bouchard, C., Willett, WC. (1992) Absolute fat mass, percent body fat, and body-fat distribution: which is the real determinant of blood pressure and serum glucose? Am J Clin Nutr. 55: 10331044.
  • 20
    Hunter, G. R., Kekes-Szabo, T., Snyder, S. W., Nicholson, C., Nyikos, I., Berland, L. (1997) Fat distribution, physical activity, and cardiovascular risk factors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 29: 362369.
  • 21
    De Lorenzo, F., Mukherjee, M., Kadziola, Z., Suleiman, S., Kakkar, VV. (1998) Association of overall adiposity rather than body mass index with lipids and procoagulant factors. Thromb Haemost. 80: 603606.