• 1
    Baille-Hamilton, PF. (2002) Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. J Altern Compl Med. 8: 185192.
  • 2
    Heindel, JJ. (2003) Endocrine disruptors and the obesity epidemic. Toxicol Sci. 76: 247249.
  • 3
    Henley, D. V., Korach, KS. (2006) Endocrine disrupting chemicals utilize distinct mechanisms of action to modulate endocrine system function. Endocrinology. 147 (suppl): 2532.
  • 4
    Hale, R. C., Alaee, M., Manchester-Neesvig, J. B., Stapleton, H. M., Ikonomou, MG. (2003) Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment. Environ Int. 29: 771779.
  • 5
    Schecter, A., Papke, O., Tung, K-C, Joseph, J. E., Harris, T. R., Dahlgren, J. (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the U.S. population: current levels, temporal trends, and comparison with dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls. J Occup Environ Med. 47: 199211.
  • 6
    Jones-Otazo, H. A., Clarke, J. P., Diamond, M. L., et al (2005) Is house dust the missing exposure pathway for PBDEs? An analysis of the urban fate and human exposure to PBDEs. Environ Sci Technol. 39: 51215130.
  • 7
    Schecter, A., Papke, O., Joseph, J. E., Tung, K-C. (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. computers and domestic carpet vacuuming: possible sources of human exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health. 68: 501513.
  • 8
    Rudel, R. A., Camann, D. E., Spengler, J. D., Korn, L. R., Brody, JG. (2003) Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environ Sci Technol. 37: 45434553.
  • 9
    Wilford, B. H., Harner, T., Zhu, J., Shoeib, M., Jones, KC. (2004) Passive sampling survey of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in indoor and outdoor air in Ottawa, Canada: implications for sources and exposure. Environ Sci Technol. 38: 53125318.
  • 10
    Gouin, T., Thomas, G. O., Cousins, I., Barber, J., MacKay, D., Jones, KC. (2002) Air-surface exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Sci Technol. 36: 14261434.
  • 11
    Domingo, JL. (2004) Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers through the diet. J Chromatogr A. 1054: 321326.
  • 12
    Schecter, A., Papke, O., Tung, K-C, Staskal, D., Birnbaum, L. (2004) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers contamination of United States food. Environ Sci Technol. 38: 53065311.
  • 13
    Harrad, S., Wijesekera, R., Hunter, S., Halliwell, C., Baker, R. (2004) Preliminary assessment of U.K. human dietary and inhalation exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Sci Technol. 38: 23452350.
  • 14
    Ikonomou, M. G., Rayne, S., Addison, RF. (2002) Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian arctic from 1981 to 2000. Environ Sci Technol. 36: 18861892.
  • 15
    Ueno, D., Kajiwara, N., Tanaka, H., et al (2004) Global pollution monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator. Environ Sci Technol. 38: 23122316.
  • 16
    Allchin, C. R., Law, R. J., Morris, S. (1999) Polybrominated diphenylethers in sediments and biota downstream of potential sources in the U.K. Environ Pollution. 105: 197207.
  • 17
    Darnerud, P. O., Risberg, S. (2006) Tissue localisation of tetra- and pentabromodiphenyl ether congeners (BDE-47, −85 and −99) in perinatal and adult C57BL mice. Chemosphere. 62: 485493.
  • 18
    Johnson-Restrepo, B., Kannan, K., Rapaport, D. P., Rodan, BD. (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from New York. Environ Sci Technol. 39: 51775182.
  • 19
    Naert, C., Piette, M., Bruneel, N., Van Peteghem, C. (2006) Occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Belgian human adipose tissue samples. Arch Environ Contam and Toxicol. 50: 290296.
  • 20
    Fängström, B., Strid, A., Grandjean, P., Weihe, P., Bergman, A. (2005) A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands. Environmental Health. 4: 12.
  • 21
    Eslami, B., Koizumi, A., Ohta, S., et al (2005) Large-scale evaluation of the current level of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from 13 regions of Japan. Chemosphere. 99: 3139.
  • 22
    Kalantzi, O., Martin, F., Thomas, G. O., et al (2004) Different levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chlorinated compounds in breast milk from two U.K. regions. Environ Health Perspect. 112: 10851091.
  • 23
    Kerzke, D., Berger, U., Kallenborn, R., Nygard, T., Vetter, W. (2005) Brominated flame retardants and other organobromines in Norwegian predatory bird eggs. Chemosphere. 61: 441449.
  • 24
    Lindberg, P., Sellstrom, U., Haggberg, L., de Wit, CA. (2004) Higher brominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane found in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden. Environ Sci Technol. 38: 9396.
  • 25
    de Wit, C. A., Alaee, M., Muir, DCG. (2006) Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the arctic. Chemosphere. 64: 209233.
  • 26
    Hallgren, S., Sinjari, T., Hakansson, H., Darnerud, PO. (2001) Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on thyroid hormone and vitamin A levels in rats and mice. Arch Toxicol. 75: 200208.
  • 27
    Hallgren, S., Darnerud, PO. (2002) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in rats: testing interactions and mechanisms for thyroid hormone effects. Toxicology. 177: 227243.
  • 28
    Branchi, I., Alleva, E., Costa, LG. (2002) Effects of perinatal exposure to a polybrominated diphenyls ether (PBDE 99) on mouse neurobehavioural development. Neurotoxicology. 23: 375384.
  • 29
    Eriksson, P., Viberg, H., Jakobsson, E., Orn, U., Fredriksson, A. (2002) A brominated flame retardant, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5-pentabromodiphenyl ether: uptake, retention, and induction of neurobehavioral alterations in mice during a critical phase of neonatal brain development. Toxicol Sci. 67: 98103.
  • 30
    Timme-Laragler, A. R., Levin, E. D., Di Giulio, RT. (2006) Developmental and behavioral effects of embryonic exposure to the polybrominated diphenylether mixture DE-71 in the killfish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Chemosphere. 62: 10971104.
  • 31
    Meerts, IATM, Letcher, R. J., Hoving, S., et al (2001) In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated PBDEs, and polybrominated bisphenol A compounds. Environ Health Perspect. 109: 399407.
  • 32
    Hamers, T., Kamstra, J. H., Sonneveld, E., et al (2006) In vitro profiling of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants. Toxicol Sci. 92: 157173.
  • 33
    Kodavanti, P. R. S., Ward, T. R., Ludewig, G., Robertson, L. W., Birnbaum, LS. (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) effects in rat neuronal cultures: 14C-PBDE accumulation, biological effects, and structure-activity relationships. Toxicol Sci. 88: 181192.
  • 34
    Kodavanti, P. R. S., Ward, TR. (2005) Differential effects of commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether and polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures on intracellular signaling in rat brain in vitro. Toxicol Sci. 85: 952962.
  • 35
    Kodavanti, P. R. S., Derr-Yellin, EC. (2002) Differential effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls on [3H] arachidonic acid release in rat cerebellar granule neurons. Toxicol Sci. 68: 451457.
  • 36
    Merservey, C. M., Carey, GB. (1994) Dietary fat saturation and endurance exercise alter lipolytic sensitivity of adipocytes isolated from Yucatan miniature swine. J Nutr. 124: 23352343.
  • 37
    Huwe, J., Larsen, G. (2005) Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a U.S. meat market basket and estimates of dietary intake. Environ Sci Technol. 39: 56065611.
  • 38
    Weiland, OH. (1985) Glycerol, UV-method. In Bergmeyer, HU (ed). Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Verlag Chemie: Deerfield Beach, FL. 504510.
  • 39
    Finnegan, R. B., Carey, GB. (1998) Characterization of cyclic AMP efflux from swine adipocytes in vitro. Obes Res. 6: 292298.
  • 40
    Zhou, T., Ross, DGDMJ, Crofton, KM. (2001) Effects of short-term in vitro exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on thyroid hormones and hepatic enzyme activites in weanling rats. Toxicol Sci. 61: 7682.
  • 41
    Zhou, T., Taylor, M. M., DeVito, M. J., Darnerud, PO. (2002) Developmental exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers results in thyroid hormone disruption. Toxicology. 66: 105116.
  • 42
    Meerts, IATM, Marsh, G., Van Leeuwen-Bol, I., Luijks, E., Bergman, A., Brouwer, A. (1998) Interaction of polybrominated diphenylether metabolites (PBDE-OH) with human transthyrethrin in vitro. Organohalogen Compounds. 37: 309312.
  • 43
    Hanari, N., Kannan, K., Miyake, Y., et al (2006) Occurrence of polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polybrominated dibenzofurans as impurities in commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether mixtures. Environ Sci Technol. 40: 44004405.
  • 44
    Garaulet, M., Perez-Llamas, F., Fuente, T., Zamora, S., Tebar, F. (2000) Anthropometric, computer tomography and fat adipocyte data in an obese population: relationship with insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, sex hormone-binding globulin and sex hormones. Eur J Endocrinol. 143: 657666.
  • 45
    DiGirolamo, M., Fine, J., Tagra, K., Rossamanith, R. (1998) Qualitative regional differences in adipose tissue growth and cellularity in male Wistar rats fed ad libitum. Am J Physiol. 274: R1460R1467.
  • 46
    Greenberg, A., Obin, M. (2006) Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 83 (suppl): 461465.
  • 47
    Haiyan, X. U., Barnes, G. T., Yang, Q., et al (2003) Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 112: 18211830.
  • 48
    Boden, G. (2003) Effects of free fatty acids (FFA) on glucose metabolism: significance for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 111: 121124.
  • 49
    Boden, G., Chen, X., Ruiz, J., White, J., Rossetti, L. (1994) Mechanisms of fatty acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. J Clin Invest. 93: 24382446.