• 1
    Cefalu, W., Wang, Z. M., Webel, S., et al (1995) Contribution of visceral fat mass to the insulin resistance of aging. Metabolism. 44: 954959.
  • 2
    Miyazaki, Y., Glass, L., Triplitt, C., Wajcberg, E., Mandarino, L., DeFronzo, RA. (2002) Abdominal fat distribution and peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 283: E1135E1143.
  • 3
    Montague, C. T., O'Rahilly, S. (2000) The perils of portliness: causes and consequences of visceral adiposity. Diabetes. 49: 883888.
  • 4
    Motoshima, H., Wu, X., Sinha, M. K., et al (2002) Differential regulation of adiponectin secretion from cultured human omental and subcutaneous adipocytes: effects of insulin and rosiglitazone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87: 56625667.
  • 5
    Nguyen-Duy, T. B., Nichaman, M. Z., Church, T. S., Blair, S. N., Ross, R. (2003) Visceral fat and liver fat are independent predictors of metabolic risk factors in men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 284: E1065E1071.
  • 6
    Wajchenberg, BL. (2000) Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Endocr Rev. 21: 697738.
  • 7
    Wajchenberg, B. L., Giannella-Neto, D., da Silva, M. E., Santos, RF. (2002) Depot-specific hormonal characteristics of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Horm Metab Res. 34: 616621.
  • 8
    Boyko, E. J., Fujimoto, W. Y., Leonetti, D. L., Newell-Morris, L. (2000) Visceral adiposity and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study among Japanese Americans. Diabetes Care. 23: 465471.
  • 9
    Nicklas, B., Penninx, B., Cesari, M., Kritchevsky, S., Newman, A., Kanaya, A. (2004) Association of visceral adipose tissue with incident myocardial infarction in older men and women: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Am J Epidemiol. 160: 741749.
  • 10
    Hayashi, T., Boyko, E. J., Leonetti, D. L., et al (2004) Visceral adiposity is an independent predictor of incident hypertension in Japanese Americans. Ann Intern Med. 140: 9921000.
  • 11
    Kuk, J. L., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Nichaman, M. Z., Chruch, T. S., Blair, S. N., Ross, R. (2006) Visceral fat is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in men. Obesity. 14: 336341.
  • 12
    Bergman, R. N., Kim, S. P., Catalano, K. J., et al (2006) Why visceral fat is bad: mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity. 14 (Suppl 1): 16S19S.
  • 13
    Kabir, M., Catalano, K. J., Ananthnarayan, S., et al (2005) Molecular evidence supporting the portal theory: a causative link between visceral adiposity and hepatic insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 288: E454E461.
  • 14
    Machann, J., Thamer, C., Schnoedt, B., et al (2005) Standardized assessment of whole body adipose tissue topography by MRI. J Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 21: 455462.
  • 15
    Kuk, J. L., Church, T. S., Blair, S. N., Ross, R. (2006) Does measurement site for visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue alter associations with the metabolic syndrome? Diabetes Care. 29: 679684.
  • 16
    Shen, W., Wang, Z. M., Punyanita, M., et al (2003) Adipose tissue quantification by imaging methods: a proposed classification. Obes Res. 11: 516.
  • 17
    Baumgartner, R. N., Heymsfield, S. B., Roche, A. F., Bernardino, M. (1988) Abdominal composition quantified by computed tomography. Am J Clin Nutr. 48: 936945.
  • 18
    Kvist, H., Chowdhury, B., Grangard, U., Tylen, U., Sjöström, L. (1988) Total and visceral adipose-tissue volumes derived from measurements with computed tomography in adult men and women: predictive equations. Am J Clin Nutr. 48: 13511361.
  • 19
    Kvist, H., Sjöström, L., Tylen, U. (1986) Adipose tissue volume determinations in women by computed tomography: technical considerations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 10: 5367.
  • 20
    Ross, R., Leger, L., Morris, D., de Guise, J., Guardo, R. (1992) Quantification of adipose tissue by MRI: relationship with anthropometric variables. J Appl Physiol. 72: 787795.
  • 21
    Ross, R., Shaw, K. D., Martel, Y., de Guise, J., Avruch, L. (1993) Adipose tissue distribution measured by magnetic resonance imaging in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 57: 470475.
  • 22
    Ross, R., Shaw, K. D., Rissanen, J., Martel, Y., de Guise, J., Avruch, L. (1994) Sex differences in lean and adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging: anthropometric relationships. Am J Clin Nutr. 59: 12771285.
  • 23
    Demerath, E. W., Shen, W., Lee, M., et al (2007) Approximation of total visceral adipose tissue with a single magnetic resonance image. Am J Clin Nutr. 85: 362368.
  • 24
    Greenfield, J. R., Samaras, K., Chisholm, D. J., Campbell, LV. (2002) Regional intra-subject variability in abdominal adiposity limits usefulness of computed tomography. Obes Res. 10: 260265.
  • 25
    Thomas, E. L., Bell, JD. (2003) Influence of undersampling on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 27: 211218.
  • 26
    Warren, M., Schreiner, P. J., Terry, JG. (2006) The relation between visceral fat measurement and torso level—is one level better than another? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 1990–1992. Am J Epidemiol. 163: 352358.
  • 27
    Demerath, E. W., Shen, W., Lee, M., et al (2007) Approximation of total visceral adipose tissue using a single MR image. Am J Clin Nutr. 85: 362368.
  • 28
    Hotelling, H. (1940) The selection of variants for use in prediction with some comments on the general problem of nuisance parameters. Ann Math Stat. 11: 271283.
  • 29
    Forouhi, N. G., Sattar, N. (2006) CVD risk factors and ethnicity—a homogeneous relationship? Atheroscler Suppl. 7: 1119.
  • 30
    Masuzaki, H., Paterson, J., Shinyama, H., et al (2001) A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Science. 294: 21662170.
  • 31
    Ahima, R., Flier, J. (2000) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 11: 327332.
  • 32
    Ross, R., Janssen, I. (2004) Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In Heymsfield, SB Lohman, TG Wang, ZM and Going, SB (eds) Human Body Composition. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL. 89108.
  • 33
    Conway, J., Yanovski, S., Avila, N., Hubbard, V. (1995) Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr. 61: 765771.
  • 34
    Despres, J-P, Couillard, C., Gagnon, J., et al (2000) Race, visceral adipose tissue, plasma lipids, and lipoprotein lipase activity in men and women: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) family study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 20: 19321938.
  • 35
    Hill, J. O., Sidney, S., Lewis, C. E., Tolan, K., Scherzinger, A. L., Stamm, ER. (1999) Racial differences in amounts of visceral adipose tissue in young adults: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 69: 381387.
  • 36
    Hoffman, D. J., Wang, Z., Gallagher, D., Heymsfield, SB. (2005) Comparison of visceral adipose tissue mass in adult African Americans and whites. Obes. Res. 13: 6674.
  • 37
    Perry, A., Applegate, E., Jackson, M., et al (2000) Racial differences in visceral adipose tissue but not anthropometric markers of health-related variables. J Appl Physiol. 89: 636643.
  • 38
    Sumner, A. E., Farmer, N. M., Tulloch-Reid, M. K., et al (2002) Sex differences in visceral adipose tissue volume among African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 76: 975979.
  • 39
    Borkan, G., Hults, D., Gerzof, S., Robbins, A., Silbert, CK. (1983) Age changes in body composition revealed by computed tomography. J Gerontol. 38: 637639.
  • 40
    Hughes, V., Roubenoff, R., Wood, M., Frontera, W., Evans, W., Singh, M. Fiatarone (2004) Anthropometric assessment of 10-y changes in body composition in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 80: 475482.
  • 41
    Lemiuex, S., Prud'homme, D., Moorjani, S., et al (1995) Do elevated levels of abdominal visceral adipose tissue contribute to age-related differences in lipoprotein concentrations in men? Atherosclerosis. 118: 155164.
  • 42
    Pascot, A., Lemieux, S., Lemieux, I., et al (1999) Age-related increase in visceral adipse tissue and body fat, and the metabolic risk profile of premenopausal women. Diabetes Care. 22: 14711478.
  • 43
    Shimokata, J., Andres, R., Coon, P., Elahi, D., Muller, D., Tobin, J. (1989) Studies in the distribution of body fat. II. Longitudinal effect of change in weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 13: 455464.
  • 44
    Kanaley, J., Sames, C., Swisher, L., et al (2001) Abdominal fat distribution in pre- and postmenopausal women: the impact of physical activity, age, and menopausal status. Metabolism. 50: 976982.
  • 45
    Ley, C., Lees, B., Stevenson, J. (1992) Sex- and menopause-associated changes in body fat distribution. Am J Clin Nutr. 55: 950954.
  • 46
    Svendsen, O., Hassager, C., Christiansen, C. (1995) Age- and menopause-associated variations in body composition and fat distribution in healthy women as measured by dual energy x-ray absortiometry. Metabolism. 44: 369373.
  • 47
    Toth, M., Tchernof, A., Sites, C., Poehlman, ET. (2000) Effect of menopausal status on body fat composition and abdominal fat distribution. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 24: 226231.
  • 48
    Wang, Q., Hassager, C., Ravn, P., Wang, S., Christiansen, C. (1994) Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women: age-related or menopause-related? Am J Clin Nutr. 60: 843848.
  • 49
    No authors listed (1998) Executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Arch Intern Med. 158: 18551867.
  • 50
    No authors listed (1998) Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults—the evidence report. National Institutes of Health. Obes Res. 6: 51S209S.
  • 51
    Kadowaki, T., Sekikawa, A., Murata, K., et al (2006) Japanese men have larger areas of visceral adipose tissue than Caucasian men in the same levels of waist circumference in a population-based study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 30: 11631165.
  • 52
    Lee, S., Janssen, I., Ross, R. (2004) Interindividual variation in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: influence of measurement site. J Appl Physiol. 97: 948954.
  • 53
    Shen, W., Punyanitya, M., Wang, Z. M., et al (2004) Visceral adipose tissue: relations between single-slice areas and total volume. Am J Clin Nutr. 80: 271278.