Breakfast Cereals and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Physicians’ Health Study I

Authors

  • Jinesh Kochar,

    1. Divisions of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Luc Djoussé,

    Corresponding author
    1. Divisions of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • J. Michael Gaziano

    1. Divisions of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Divisions of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • The costs of publication of this article were defrayed, in part, by the payment of page charges. This article must, therefore, be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

Division of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, 3rd Floor, Boston MA 02120. E-mail: ldjousse@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Abstract

Objective: To examine the association between breakfast cereal consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (DM).

Research Methods and Procedures: We analyzed prospectively data from 21,152 male participants of the Physicians’ Health Study I. Consumption of breakfast cereals was estimated using an abbreviated food questionnaire, and incident DM was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires.

Results: The average age was 53.6 ± 9.4 years (range, 39.7 to 85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981 to 1983). During a mean follow-up of 19.1 years, 1958 cases of DM occurred. The crude incidence rates of DM were 57.7, 53.8, 43.5, and 35.4 cases/10,000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤1, 2 to 6, and ≥7 servings/wk, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, BMI, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and alcohol intake, hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for DM were 1.0 (reference), 0.89 (0.79 to 1.00), 0.76 (0.67 to 0.86), and 0.63 (0.55 to 0.72) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend < 0.0001). In secondary analyses, the inverse association between cereal intake and DM was stronger with whole-grain than refined cereals.

Discussion: These results suggest that intake of breakfast cereals might confer a lower risk of DM. Consumption of whole-grain products may help lower the risk of DM.

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