• 1
    Pekkarinen, T., Takala, I., Mustajoki, P. (1998) Weight loss with very-low-calorie diet and cardiovascular risk factors in moderately obese women: one-year follow-up study including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 22: 661666.
  • 2
    Quaade, F., Astrup, A. (1989) Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss. Int J Obes. 13 (Suppl 2): 107111.
  • 3
    Ryttig, K. R., Flaten, H., Rossner, S. (1997) Long-term effects of a very low calorie diet (Nutrilett) in obesity treatment: a prospective, randomized comparison between VLCD and a hypocaloric diet + behavior modification and their combination. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 21: 574579.
  • 4
    Bryson, J. M., King, S. E., Burns, C. M., Baur, L. A., Swaraj, S., Caterson, ID (1996) Changes in glucose and lipid metabolism following weight loss produced by a very low calorie diet in obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 20: 338345.
  • 5
    Borkman, M., Storlien, L. H., Pan, D. A., Jenkins, A. B., Chisholm, D. J., Campbell, LV (1993) The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty-acid composition of skeletal-muscle phospholipids. N Engl J Med. 328: 238244.
  • 6
    Haugaard, S. B., Madsbad, S., Hoy, C. E., Vaag, A. (2006) Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects: implications for insulin sensitivity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 64: 169178.
  • 7
    Helge, J. W., Dela, F. (2003) Effect of training on muscle triacylglycerol and structural lipids: a relation to insulin sensitivity? Diabetes 52: 18811887.
  • 8
    Pan, D. A., Lillioja, S., Milner, M. R., et al (1995) Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. J Clin Invest. 96: 28022808.
  • 9
    Vessby, B., Tengblad, S., Lithell, H. (1994) Insulin sensitivity is related to the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and skeletal muscle phospholipids in 70-year-old men. Diabetologia 37: 10441050.
  • 10
    Ginsberg, B. H., Jabour, J., Spector, AA (1982) Effect of alterations in membrane lipid unsaturation on the properties of the insulin receptor of Ehrlich ascites cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 690: 157164.
  • 11
    Grunfeld, C., Baird, K. L., Kahn, CR (1981) Maintenance of 3T3–L1 cells in culture media containing saturated fatty acids decreases insulin binding and insulin action. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 103: 219226.
  • 12
    Field, C. J., Ryan, E. A., Thomson, A. B., Clandinin, MT (1990) Diet fat composition alters membrane phospholipid composition, insulin binding, and glucose metabolism in adipocytes from control and diabetic animals. J Biol Chem. 265: 1114311150.
  • 13
    Storlien, L. H., Jenkins, A. B., Chisholm, D. J., Pascoe, W. S., Khouri, S., Kraegen, EW (1991) Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats: relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipid. Diabetes 40: 280289.
  • 14
    Goodpaster, B. H., Thaete, F. L., Simoneau, J. A., Kelley, DE (1997) Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat. Diabetes 46: 15791585.
  • 15
    He, J., Watkins, S., Kelley, DE (2001) Skeletal muscle lipid content and oxidative enzyme activity in relation to muscle fiber type in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Diabetes 50: 817823.
  • 16
    Jacob, S., Machann, J., Rett, K., et al (1999) Association of increased intramyocellular lipid content with insulin resistance in lean nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes 48: 11131119.
  • 17
    Krssak, M., Petersen, Falk K., Dresner, A., et al (1999) Intramyocellular lipid concentrations are correlated with insulin sensitivity in humans: a 1H NMR spectroscopy study. Diabetologia 42: 113116.
  • 18
    Levin, K., Daa, S. H., Alford, F. P., Beck-Nielsen, H. (2001) Morphometric documentation of abnormal intramyocellular fat storage and reduced glycogen in obese patients with Type II diabetes. Diabetologia 44: 824833.
  • 19
    Pan, D. A., Lillioja, S., Kriketos, A. D., et al (1997) Skeletal muscle triglyceride levels are inversely related to insulin action. Diabetes 46: 983988.
  • 20
    Perseghin, G., Scifo, P., De Cobelli, F., et al (1999) Intramyocellular triglyceride content is a determinant of in vivo insulin resistance in humans: a 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment in offspring of type 2 diabetic parents. Diabetes 48: 16001606.
  • 21
    Phillips, D. I., Caddy, S., Ilic, V., et al (1996) Intramuscular triglyceride and muscle insulin sensitivity: evidence for a relationship in nondiabetic subjects. Metabolism 45: 947950.
  • 22
    Virkamaki, A., Korsheninnikova, E., Seppala-Lindroos, A., et al (2001) Intramyocellular lipid is associated with resistance to in vivo insulin actions on glucose uptake, antilipolysis, and early insulin signaling pathways in human skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 50: 23372343.
  • 23
    Matsui, H., Okumura, K., Kawakami, K., Hibino, M., Toki, Y., Ito, T. (1997) Improved insulin sensitivity by bezafibrate in rats: relationship to fatty acid composition of skeletal-muscle triglycerides. Diabetes 46: 348353.
  • 24
    Manco, M., Mingrone, G., Greco, A. V., et al (2000) Insulin resistance directly correlates with increased saturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle triglycerides. Metabolism 49: 220224.
  • 25
    Cefalu, W. T., Wang, Z. Q., Bell-Farrow, A. D., et al (2000) Chronic caloric restriction alters muscle membrane fatty acid content. Exp Gerontol. 35: 331341.
  • 26
    Folch, J., Lees, M., Sloane-Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 226: 497509.
  • 27
    Wallace, T. M., Levy, J. C., Matthews, DR (2004) Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Diabetes Care 27: 14871495.
  • 28
    Haugaard, S. B., Andersen, O., Hansen, B. R., et al (2005) In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance. Metabolism 54: 171179.
  • 29
    Aas, V., Rokling-Andersen, M. H., Kase, E. T., Thoresen, G. H., Rustan, AC (2006) Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) increases fatty acid and glucose uptake in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. J Lipid Res. 47: 366374.
  • 30
    Baur, L. A., O'Connor, J., Pan, D. A., Storlien, LH (1999) Relationships between maternal risk of insulin resistance and the child's muscle membrane fatty acid composition. Diabetes 48: 112116.
  • 31
    Helge, J. W., Wu, B. J., Willer, M., Daugaard, J. R., Storlien, L. H., Kiens, B. (2001) Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. J Appl Physiol. 90: 670677.
  • 32
    Kelley, D. E., Goodpaster, BH (2001) Skeletal muscle triglyceride: an aspect of regional adiposity and insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 24: 933941.
  • 33
    Bonen, A., Parolin, M. L., Steinberg, G. R., et al (2004) Triacylglycerol accumulation in human obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with increased rates of skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and increased sarcolemmal FAT/CD36. FASEB J. 18: 11441146.
  • 34
    de Antueno, R. J., Knickle, L. C., Smith, H., et al (2001) Activity of human Delta5 and Delta6 desaturases on multiple n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. FEBS Lett. 509: 7780.
  • 35
    Johnson, N. A., Stannard, S. R., Rowlands, D. S., et al (2006) Effect of short-term starvation versus high-fat diet on intramyocellular triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in physically fit men. Exp Physiol. 91: 693703.
  • 36
    Stannard, S. R., Thompson, M. W., Fairbairn, K., Huard, B., Sachinwalla, T., Thompson, CH (2002) Fasting for 72 h increases intramyocellular lipid content in nondiabetic, physically fit men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 283: E1185E1191.
  • 37
    Baur, L. A., O'Connor, J., Pan, D. A., Kriketos, A. D., Storlien, LH (1998) The fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle membrane phospholipid: its relationship with the type of feeding and plasma glucose levels in young children. Metabolism 47: 106112.
  • 38
    Mori, Y., Murakawa, Y., Katoh, S., et al (1997) Influence of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester on insulin resistance in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 46: 14581464.
  • 39
    Pan, D. A., Storlien, LH (1993) Dietary lipid profile is a determinant of tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and rate of weight gain in rats. J Nutr. 123: 512519.
  • 40
    Emken, E. A., Adlof, R. O., Gulley, RM (1994) Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1213: 277288.
  • 41
    Ghafoorunissa, Ibrahim, A., Natarajan, S. (2005) Substituting dietary linoleic acid with alpha-linolenic acid improves insulin sensitivity in sucrose fed rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1733: 6775.
  • 42
    Luthria, D. L., Mohammed, B. S., Sprecher, H. (1996) Regulation of the biosynthesis of 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid. J Biol Chem. 271: 1602016025.
  • 43
    Garaulet, M., Viguerie, N., Porubsky, S., et al (2004) Adiponectin gene expression and plasma values in obese women during very-low-calorie diet: relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 89: 756760.
  • 44
    Kolb, H., Mandrup-Poulsen, T. (2005) An immune origin of type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia 48: 10381050.
  • 45
    Petersen, K. F., Dufour, S., Befroy, D., Lehrke, M., Hendler, R. E., Shulman, GI (2005) Reversal of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia by moderate weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 54: 603608.
  • 46
    Wendling, P. S., Peters, S. J., Heigenhauser, G. J., Spriet, LL (1996) Variability of triacylglycerol content in human skeletal muscle biopsy samples. J Appl Physiol. 81: 11501155.
  • 47
    Guo, Z. (2001) Triglyceride content in skeletal muscle: variability and the source. Anal Biochem. 296: 18.