Calcium and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulation of Adipokine Expression
Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012
2007 North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASO)
Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 340–348, February 2007
How to Cite
Sun, X. and Zemel, M. B. (2007), Calcium and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulation of Adipokine Expression. Obesity, 15: 340–348. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.540
- Issue published online: 6 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012
- Received for review February 13, 2006, Accepted in final from September 21, 2006
- reactive oxygen species;
Objective: Obesity is associated with elevated oxidative stress and low-grade systemic inflammation. We have demonstrated recently that 1α,25-(OH)2-D3 promotes reactive oxygen species production in cultured adipocytes, whereas suppression of 1α,25-(OH)2-D3 by increasing dietary calcium down-regulates diet-induced oxidative stress in aP2-agouti transgenic mice. However, whether the anti-obesity effect of dietary calcium plays a role in regulation of obesity-associated inflammation is not clear.
Research Methods and Procedures: We investigated the role of dietary calcium in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine production in aP2-agouti transgenic mice fed low- and high-calcium obesigenic diets and in the modulation of cytokine production by 1α,25-(OH)2-D3 in cultured murine and human adipocytes.
Results: The high-calcium diet inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-6 by 64% and 51%, respectively (p < 0.001), in visceral fat, stimulated the expression of the anti-inflammatory factors IL-15 and adiponectin by 52% (p = 0.001) and 54% (p = 0.025), respectively, in visceral fat, and induced a 2-fold increase in IL-15 expression in soleus muscle (p = 0.01) compared with litter mate controls on a low-calcium diet. 1α,25-(OH)2-D3 also markedly stimulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (p < 0.001) and IL-6 (p = 0.016) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased IL-6 (p = 0.004) and IL-8 (p < 0.001) production in differentiated human adipocytes. These effects were blocked by calcium channel antagonism with nifedipine.
Discussion: These data demonstrate that 1α,25-(OH)2-D3 favors inflammatory cytokine expression and inhibits anti-inflammatory cytokine expression; accordingly, suppression of 1α,25-(OH)2-D3 by dietary calcium inhibits adipocyte-derived inflammation associated with obesity.