Developmental Trajectories of Overweight During Childhood: Role of Early Life Factors
Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2012
2007 North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASO)
Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 760–771, March 2007
How to Cite
Li, C., Goran, M. I., Kaur, H., Nollen, N. and Ahluwalia, J. S. (2007), Developmental Trajectories of Overweight During Childhood: Role of Early Life Factors. Obesity, 15: 760–771. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.585
- Issue online: 6 SEP 2012
- Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2012
- Received for review November 10, 2005, Accepted in final from September 29, 2006
- birth weight;
- maternal obesity;
- gestational weight gain;
Objective: Our goal was to identify developmental trajectories of overweight in children and to assess early life influences on these trajectories.
Research Methods and Procedures: Participants consisted of 1739 white, black, and Hispanic children who were younger than 2 years at the first survey and were followed up to 12 years of age. Repeated measures of overweight, defined as BMI ≥95th percentile, were used to identify overweight trajectories with a latent growth mixture modeling approach.
Results: Three distinct overweight trajectories were identified: 1) early onset overweight (10.9%), 2) late onset overweight (5.2%), and 3) never overweight (83.9%). After adjustment for multiple potential risk factors, male gender [odds ratio (OR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0 to 2.2], black ethnicity (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.6), maternal 25 ≤ BMI <30 kg/m2 (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.7) or ≥30 kg/m2 (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.9 to 9.1), maternal weight gain during pregnancy ≥20.43 kg (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.9), and birth weight ≥4000 g (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4) were associated with an increased risk of early onset overweight. These risk factors, except maternal weight gain, exerted similar effects on late onset overweight. In addition, maternal smoking (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8 to 3.1) and birth order ≥3 (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 5.2) were associated with an increased risk of late onset overweight only. Breastfeeding ≥4 months was associated with a decreased risk of both early (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.3) and late onset overweight (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.7).
Discussion: Two trajectories of overweight and one never overweight group were identified. Early life predictors may have a significant influence on the developmental trajectories of overweight in children.