• 1
    Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Caldwell SH. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: summary of an AASLD Single Topic Conference. Hepatology 2003; 37: 12021219.
  • 2
    Matteoni CA, Younossi ZM, Gramlich T et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a spectrum of clinical and pathological severity. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 14131419.
  • 3
    Tendler DA. Pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In UpToDate. < >. (2006).
  • 4
    Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R et al. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. Hepatology 2004; 40: 13871395.
  • 5
    Szczepaniak LS, Nurenberg P, Leonard D et al. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure hepatic triglyceride content: prevalence of hepatic steatosis in the general population. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 288: E462E468.
  • 6
    Bizzaro N, Tremolada F, Casarin C et al. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels among volunteer blood donors: effect of sex, alcohol intake and obesity. Ital J Gastroenterol 1992; 24: 237241.
  • 7
    Wanless IR, Lentz JS. Fatty liver hepatitis (steatohepatitis) and obesity: an autopsy study with analysis of risk factors. Hepatology 1990; 12: 11061110.
  • 8
    Targher G, Bertolini L, Padovani R et al. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 12121218.
  • 9
    Shen YH, Yang WS, Lee TH et al. Bright liver and alanine aminotransferase are associated with metabolic syndrome in adults. Obes Res 2005; 13: 12381245.
  • 10
    Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 2001; 50: 18441850.
  • 11
    Seppälä-Lindroos A, Vehkavaara S, Häkkinen AM et al. Fat accumulation in the liver is associated with defects in insulin suppression of glucose production and serum free fatty acids independent of obesity in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 30233028.
  • 12
    Tiikkainen M, Tamminen M, Häkkinen AM et al. Liver-fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese women with previous gestational diabetes. Obes Res 2002; 10: 859867.
  • 13
    Diehl AM, Poordad F. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Saunders: Philadelphia, PA, 2002.
  • 14
    Angulo P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 12211231.
  • 15
    Sheth SG, Chopra S. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. In UpToDate. <>. (2006).
  • 16
    Tiikkainen M, Bergholm R, Vehkavaara S et al. Effects of identical weight loss on body composition and features of insulin resistance in obese women with high and low liver fat content. Diabetes 2003; 52: 701707.
  • 17
    Ueno T, Sugawara H, Sujaku K et al. Therapeutic effects of restricted diet and exercise in obese patients with fatty liver. J Hepatol 1997; 27: 103107.
  • 18
    Goodpaster BH, Katsiaras A, Kelley DE. Enhanced fat oxidation through physical activity is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity in obesity. Diabetes 2003; 52: 21912197.
  • 19
    Dengel DR, Pratley RE, Hagberg JM, Rogus EM, Goldberg AP. Distinct effects of aerobic exercise training and weight loss on glucose homeostasis in obese sedentary men. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81: 318325.
  • 20
    Ross R, Dagnone D, Jones PJ et al. Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 92103.
  • 21
    Franssila-Kallunki A, Rissanen A, Ekstrand A, Ollus A, Groop L. Weight loss by very-low-calorie diets: effects on substrate oxidation, energy expenditure, and insulin sensitivity in obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56 (Suppl 1):S247S248.
  • 22
    Heilbronn LK, de Jonge L, Frisard MI et al. Effect of 6-month calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity, metabolic adaptation, and oxidative stress in overweight individuals: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 295: 15391548.
  • 23
    First MB, Gibbon M, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. User's Guide for the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1, Version 2.0). American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC, 1995.
  • 24
    Larson-Meyer DE, Heilbronn LK, Redman LM et al. Effect of Calorie Restriction with or without exercise on insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, fat cell size, and ectopic lipid in overweight subjects. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 13371344.
  • 25
    Larson-Meyer DE, Smith SR, Heilbronn LK et al. Muscle-associated triglyceride measured by computed tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14: 7387.
  • 26
    Piekarski J, Goldberg HI, Royal SA, Axel L, Moss AA. Difference between liver and spleen CT numbers in the normal adult: its usefulness in predicting the presence of diffuse liver disease. Radiology 1980; 137: 727729.
  • 27
    Lefevre M, Champagne CM, Tulley RT, Rood JC, Most MM. Individual variability in cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to low-fat and low-saturated-fat diets in men: body mass index, adiposity, and insulin resistance predict changes in LDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 957963; quiz 1145–1146.
  • 28
    Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, Martin CK et al. Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on body composition and fat distribution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 865872.
  • 29
    Lefevre M, Heilbronn LK, Smith JV et al. CVD risk factors are improved in overweight individuals by 6-month caloric restriction alone or in combination with increased physical activity. (in press)
  • 30
    Banerji MA, Buckley MC, Chaiken RL et al. Liver fat, serum triglycerides and visceral adipose tissue in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant black men with NIDDM. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995; 19: 846850.
  • 31
    Shulman GI. Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2000; 106: 171176.
  • 32
    Wanless IR, Bargman JM, Oreopoulos DG, Vas SI. Subcapsular steatonecrosis in response to peritoneal insulin delivery: a clue to the pathogenesis of steatonecrosis in obesity. Mod Pathol 1989; 2: 6974.
  • 33
    Danforth E Jr. Failure of adipocyte differentiation causes type II diabetes mellitus? Nat Genet 2000; 26: 13.
  • 34
    Kim JK, Fillmore JJ, Chen Y et al. Tissue-specific overexpression of lipoprotein lipase causes tissue-specific insulin resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 75227527.
  • 35
    Samuel VT, Liu ZX, Qu X et al. Mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 3234532353.
  • 36
    Acosta D, Wenzel DG. Injury produced by free fatty acids to lysosomes and mitochondria in cultured heart muscle and endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis 1974; 20: 417426.
  • 37
    Mayerson AB, Hundal RS, Dufour S et al. The effects of rosiglitazone on insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, and hepatic and skeletal muscle triglyceride content in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51: 797802.
  • 38
    Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Hardies LJ, Pratipanawatr T, DeFronzo RA. Plasma resistin concentration, hepatic fat content, and hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type II diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 783789.
  • 39
    Goldberg RB, Kendall DM, Deeg MA et al. A comparison of lipid and glycemic effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 15471554.
  • 40
    Malmström R, Packard CJ, Caslake M et al. Defective regulation of triglyceride metabolism by insulin in the liver in NIDDM. Diabetologia 1997; 40: 454462.
  • 41
    Malmström R, Packard CJ, Caslake M et al. Effects of insulin and acipimox on VLDL1 and VLDL2 apolipoprotein B production in normal subjects. Diabetes 1998; 47: 779787.
  • 42
    Longo R, Ricci C, Masutti F et al. Fatty infiltration of the liver. Quantification by 1H localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy and comparison with computed tomography. Invest Radiol 1993; 28: 297302.
  • 43
    Ricci C, Longo R, Gioulis E et al. Noninvasive in vivo quantitative assessment of fat content in human liver. J Hepatol 1997; 27: 108113.
  • 44
    Szczepaniak LS, Babcock EE, Schick F et al. Measurement of intracellular triglyceride stores by 1H spectroscopy: validation in vivo. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: E977E989.
  • 45
    Ishii M, Yoshioka Y, Ishida W et al. Liver fat content measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3.0 tesla independently correlates with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and body mass index in type 2 diabetic subjects. Tohoku J Exp Med 2005; 206: 2330.