Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue (AT), exerts beneficial pleiotropic effects on obesity-related metabolic diseases. We have analyzed the adiponectin gene (ACDC) and its expression in two genetically different breeds of pigs, lean type, large white (LW) and fat type, Casertana (CE). DNA, RNA, and protein extracts from 10 LW and 10 CE pigs were analyzed by sequence analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fast protein liquid chromatography, and northern and western blotting. Sequence analysis revealed an identity of 100% between the ACDC gene from the two breeds, but the expression of the adiponectin protein was higher in LW than in CE pigs. We identified sexual dimorphism of adiponectin in both breeds, namely a balanced distribution of the low isoforms (∼50 kDa), whereas the middle isoforms (∼75–150 kDa) were increased in sows. In conclusion, in this study, we demonstrate that adiponectin is produced and secreted differently in the two breeds of pig, namely adiponectin is more abundant in LW than in CE. Moreover, the visceral AT of LW expresses more adiponectin than the subcutaneous AT. This relationship is absent in CE. These observations provided the first evidence that adiponectin expression is correlated with the “fat” phenotype in pig.