Adiposity Gain During Childhood, ACE I/D Polymorphisms and Metabolic Outcomes




We aimed to (i) determine the relative importance of childhood gain in upper body adiposity for insulin resistance (IR) and triglyceridemia (TG); (ii) examine whether the associations between adiposity and metabolic indices were more evident in those with the ACE DD genotype. We examined a birth cohort study of 292 children with measures in the neonatal period (day 4) including subscapular and triceps skinfolds; repeat skinfold measures at age 8, cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, IR by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) equation (HOMA-IR) and serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations and measures of ACE I/D gene variants. A multiple linear regression analysis incorporating a life course approach was undertaken. Childhood gain in upper body adiposity was positively associated with HOMA-IR and TG independently of neonatal skinfolds (P ≤ 0.02). The magnitude of these associations was higher among those of the ACE DD genotype. For example, subscapular skinfold gain was not strongly associated with HOMA-IR or TG among those with II or ID genotype (b = 0.03, P = 0.05; b = 0.02, P = 0.18 respectively) but was positively associated among those with the DD genotype (b = 0.11, P = 0.001; b = 0.08, P = 0.003); difference in effect P = 0.05; P = 0.01 respectively. Upper body fat accumulation during childhood was positively associated with HOMA-IR and TG independently of neonatal skinfolds. Further, the stronger associations for those with the ACE DD genotype is consistent with randomised controlled trial findings that ACE inhibition is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Further work is required to confirm and extend these findings.