• 1
    Kahn SE. The relative contributions of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2003; 46: 319.
  • 2
    Bergman RN, Ader M, Huecking K, Van Citters G. Accurate assessment of β-cell function: the hyperbolic correction. Diabetes 2002; 51 (Suppl 1):S212S220.
  • 3
    Bergman RN, Phillips LS, Cobelli C. Physiologic evaluation of factors controlling glucose tolerance in man: measurement of insulin sensitivity and β-cell glucose sensitivity from the response to intravenous glucose. J Clin Invest 1981; 68: 14561467.
  • 4
    Kahn SE, Prigeon RL, McCulloch DK et al. Quantification of the relationship between insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in human subjects: evidence for a hyperbolic function. Diabetes 1993; 42: 16631672.
  • 5
    Bergman RN, Finegood DT, Kahn SE. The evolution of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Invest 2002; 32 (Suppl 3):3545.
  • 6
    Weyer C, Bogardus C, Mott DM, Pratley RE. The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1999; 104: 787794.
  • 7
    Elbein SC, Hasstedt SJ, Wegner K, Kahn SE. Heritability of pancreatic β-cell function among nondiabetic members of Caucasian familial type 2 diabetic kindreds. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 1398403.
  • 8
    Dalla Man, Campioni M, Polonsky KS et al. Two-hour seven-sample oral glucose tolerance test and meal protocol: minimal model assessment of β-cell responsivity and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals. Diabetes 2005; 54: 32653273.
  • 9
    Dalla Man, Yarasheski KE, Caumo A et al. Insulin sensitivity by oral glucose minimal models: validation against the clamp. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 289: E954E959.
  • 10
    Cobelli C, Toffolo GM, Dalla Man C et al. Assessment of β-cell function in humans, simultaneously with insulin sensitivity and hepatic extraction, from intravenous and oral glucose tests. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 293: E1E15.
  • 11
    Phillips DI, Clark PM, Hales CN, Osmond C. Understanding oral glucose tolerance: comparison of glucose or insulin measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test with specific measurements of insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Diabet Med 1994; 11: 286292.
  • 12
    Hanson RL, Pratley RE, Bogardus C et al. Evaluation of simple indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion for use in epidemiologic studies. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151: 190198.
  • 13
    Matsuda M, DeFronzo R. Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 14621470.
  • 14
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS et al. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985; 28: 412419.
  • 15
    Ahren B, Pacini G. Importance of quantifying insulin secretion in relation to insulin sensitivity to accurately assess β cell function in clinical studies. Eur J Endocrinol 2004; 150: 97104.
  • 16
    Jensen C, Cnop M, Hull RL et al. β-cell function is a major contributor to oral glucose tolerance in high-risk relatives of four ethnic groups in the U.S. Diabetes 2002; 51: 21702178.
  • 17
    Kitabchi AE, Temprosa M, Knowler WC et al. Role of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the evolution of type 2 diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program: effects of lifestyle intervention and metformin. Diabetes 2005; 54: 24042414.
  • 18
    Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins DJ, Josse RG, Vuksan V. Dilution of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test improves overall tolerability but not reproducibility in subjects with different body compositions. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001; 51: 8795.
  • 19
    Zinman B, Harris SB, Gerstein HC et al. Preventing type 2 diabetes using combination therapy: design and methods of the CAnadian Normoglycaemia Outcomes Evaluation (CANOE) trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 2006; 8: 531537.
  • 20
    Stumvoll M, Van Haeften TV, Fritsche A, Gerich J. Oral glucose tolerance test indexes for insulin sensitivity and secretion based on various availabilities of sampling times. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 796797.
  • 21
    Charbonnel B, Karasik A, Liu J, Wu M, Meininger G. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin alone. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 26382643.
  • 22
    Yokoyama H, Emoto M, Fujiwara S et al. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the reciprocal index of homeostasis model assessment in normal range weight and moderately obese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 24262432.
  • 23
    Utzschneider KM, Prigeon RL, Carr DB et al. Impact of differences in fasting glucose and glucose tolerance on the hyperbolic relationship between insulin sensitivity and insulin responses. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 356362.
  • 24
    Krudys KM, Kahn SE, Vicini P. Population approaches to estimate minimal model indexes of insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness using full and reduced sampling schedules. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006; 291: E716E723.
  • 25
    Armitage P, Berry G. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific: Oxford, 1987, pp 270272.
  • 26
    Riggs DS, Guarnieri JA, Addelman S. Fitting straight lines when both variables are subject to error. Life Sciences 1978; 22: 13051360.
  • 27
    Efron B, Tibshirani R. Statistical data analysis in the computer age. Science 1991; 253: 390395.
  • 28
    Pacini G, Mari A. Methods for clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 17: 305322.
  • 29
    Vrbikova J, Bendlova B, Hill M et al. Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 12171222.
  • 30
    Yeckel CW, Weiss R, Dziura J et al. Validation of insulin sensitivity indices from oral glucose tolerance test parameters in obese children and adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 10961101.
  • 31
    Albareda M, Rodriguez-Espinosa J, Murugo M, de Leiva A, Corcoy R. Assessment of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function from measurements in the fasting state and during an oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetologia 2000; 43: 15071511.
  • 32
    Pontiroli AE, Pizzocri AE, Caumo A, Perseghin G, Luzi L. Evaluation of insulin release and insulin sensitivity through oral glucose tolerance test: differences between NGT, IFG, IGT, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional and follow-up study. Acta Diabetol 2004; 41: 7076.
  • 33
    Retnakaran R, Hanley AJ, Raif N et al. Adiponectin and β-cell dysfunction in gestational diabetes: pathophysiological implications. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 9931001.
  • 34
    van Haeften TW, Stumvoll M. —to: Albareda M et al. Assessment of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function from measurements in the fasting state and during an oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetologia 2000; 44: 783.
  • 35
    Mari A, Schmitz O, Gastaldelli A et al. Meal and oral glucose tests for assessment of β-cell function: modeling analysis in normal subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 283: E1159E1166.
  • 36
    Mykkanen L, Zaccaro DJ, Hales CN, Festa A, Haffner SM. The relation of proinsulin and insulin to insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response in subjects with newly diagnosed type II diabetes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetologia 1999; 42: 10601066.
  • 37
    Utzschneider KM, Prigeon RL, Tong J et al. Within-subject variability of measures of β cell function derived from a 2 h OGTT: implications for research studies. Diabetologia 2007; 50: 25162525.