• 1
    Dabelea D, Pettitt DJ, Jones KL, Arslanian SA. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in minority children and adolescents. An emerging problem. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1999; 28: 709729.
  • 2
    Rosenbloom AL, Joe JR, Young RS, Winter WE. Emerging epidemic of type 2 diabetes in youth. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 345354.
  • 3
    Harris MI. Diabetes in America: epidemiology and scope of the problem. Diabetes Care 1998; 21 (Suppl 3):C11C14.
  • 4
    Newell AM. Genetics for targeting disease prevention: diabetes. Prim Care 2004; 31: 743766.
  • 5
    O'Rahilly S, Barroso I, Wareham NJ. Genetic factors in type 2 diabetes: the end of the beginning? Science 2005; 307: 370373.
  • 6
    Egede LE, Dagogo-Jack S. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: focus on ethnic minorities. Med Clin North Am 2005; 89: 949975.
  • 7
    Granner DK, O'Brien RM. Molecular physiology and genetics of NIDDM. Importance of metabolic staging. Diabetes Care 1992; 15: 369395.
  • 8
    Falkner B, Michel S. Obesity and other risk factors in children. Ethn Dis 1999; 9: 284289.
  • 9
    Falkner B, Sherif K, Sumner A, Kushner H. Hyperinsulinism and sex hormones in young adult African Americans. Metabolism 1999; 48: 107112.
  • 10
    Goran MI, Bergman RN, Cruz ML, Watanabe R. Insulin resistance and associated compensatory responses in african-american and Hispanic children. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 21842190.
  • 11
    Preeyasombat C, Bacchetti P, Lazar AA, Lustig RH. Racial and etiopathologic dichotomies in insulin hypersecretion and resistance in obese children. J Pediatr 2005; 146: 474481.
  • 12
    Horlick M, Arpadi SM, Bethel J et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis models for prediction of total body water and fat-free mass in healthy and HIV-infected children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 991999.
  • 13
    Lewy VD, Danadian K, Arslanian S. Determination of body composition in African-American children: validation of bioelectrical impedence with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1999; 12: 443448.
  • 14
    Matsuda M, DeFronzo RA. Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 14621470.
  • 15
    Gunczler P, Lanes R. Relationship between different fasting-based insulin sensitivity indices in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2006; 19: 259265.
  • 16
    Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Worthman CM. Pubertal changes in hormone levels and depression in girls. Psychol Med 1999; 29: 10431053.
  • 17
    Brito VN, Batista MC, Borges MF et al. Diagnostic value of fluorometric assays in the evaluation of precocious puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 35393544.
  • 18
    Horlick MB, Rosenbaum M, Nicolson M et al. Effect of puberty on the relationship between circulating leptin and body composition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 25092518.
  • 19
    Sehested A, Andersson AM, Muller J, Skakkebaek NE. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in central precocious puberty before and during treatment with GnRH agonists. Horm Res 2000; 54: 8491.
  • 20
    Ferlin A, Garolla A, Rigon F et al. Changes in serum insulin-like factor 3 during normal male puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 34263431.
  • 21
    Flynn KJ, Fitzgibbon M. Body images and obesity risk among black females: a review of the literature. Ann Behav Med 1998; 20: 1324.
  • 22
    Liburd LC, Anderson LA, Edgar T, Jack L Jr. Body size and body shape: perceptions of black women with diabetes. Diabetes Educ 1999; 25: 382388.
  • 23
    Stunkard AJ, Sorensen T, Schulsinger F. Use of the Danish Adoption Register for the study of obesity and thinness. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1983; 60: 115120.
  • 24
    Collins ME. Body figure perceptions and preferences among pre-adolescent children. Int J Eat Disord 1991; 10: 199208.
  • 25
    Wood KC, Becker JA, Thompson JK. Body image dissatisfaction in preadolescent children. J Appl Dev Psychol 1996; 17: 85100.
  • 26
    Striegel-Moore RH, Franko DL, Thompson D et al. Changes in weight and body image over time in women with eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 2004; 36: 315327.
  • 27
    Harter S. Manual for the Self-perception Profile for Children. University of Denver: Denver, CO, 1985.
  • 28
    Cronbach LJ, Warrington WG. Time-limit tests: estimating their reliability and degree of speeding. Psychometrika 1951; 16: 167188.
  • 29
    Leger LA, Lambert J. A maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test to predict VO2 max. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1982; 49: 112.
  • 30
    Poortmans J, Vlaeminck M, Collin M, Delmotte C. [Indirect estimation of the maximal aerobic power of a male and female population from Brussels aged 6 to 23 years. Comparison with a direct technic for measuring maximal oxygen consumption]. J Physiol (Paris) 1986; 81: 195201.
  • 31
    Liu NY, Plowman SA, Looney MA. The reliability and validity of the 20-meter shuttle test in American students 12 to 15 years old. Res Q Exerc Sport 1992; 63: 360365.
  • 32
    Kimm SY, Glynn NW, Kriska AM et al. Longitudinal changes in physical activity in a biracial cohort during adolescence. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 14451454.
  • 33
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (Suppl 9):S498S504.
  • 34
    Crawford PB, Obarzanek E, Morrison J, Sabry ZI. Comparative advantage of 3-day food records over 24-hour recall and 5-day food frequency validated by observation of 9- and 10-year-old girls. J Am Diet Assoc 1994; 94: 626630.
  • 35
    Services USDoAAR. What's in the Foods You Eat Search Tool, version 2.0. USDA: Agricultural Research Services.
  • 36
    Cook AJ, Friday JE. Pyramid servings search version 2.0. 2005.
  • 37
    Shankar S, Klassen A. Influences of fruit and vegetable procurement and consumption among urban African-American public housing residents, and potential strategies for intervention. Fam Econ Nutr Rev 2001; 13: 3446.
  • 38
    Laforge RG, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO et al. Stage of regular exercise and health-related quality of life. Prev Med 1999; 28: 349360.
  • 39
    Siero FW, Broer J, Bemelmans WJ, Meyboom-de Jong BM. Impact of group nutrition education and surplus value of Prochaska-based stage-matched information on health-related cognitions and on Mediterranean nutrition behavior. Health Educ Res 2000; 15: 635647.
  • 40
    Ounpuu S, Woolcott DM, Greene GW. Defining stage of change for lower-fat eating. J Am Diet Assoc 2000; 100: 674679.
  • 41
    Lauritsen JM, Bruus M. EpiData Entry (version 6): A comprehensive tool for validated entry and documentation of data. 2005. The EpiData Association, Odense Denmark.
  • 42
    Urrutia-Rojas X, Menchaca J. Prevalence of risk for type 2 diabetes in school children. J Sch Health 2006; 76: 189194.
  • 43
    Uwaifo GI, Fallon EM, Chin J et al. Indices of insulin action, disposal, and secretion derived from fasting samples and clamps in normal glucose-tolerant black and white children. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 20812087.
  • 44
    Silfen ME, Manibo AM, McMahon DJ et al. Comparison of simple measures of insulin sensitivity in young girls with premature adrenarche: the fasting glucose to insulin ratio may be a simple and useful measure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 28632868.
  • 45
    Lee JM, Herman WH, McPheeters ML, Gurney JG. An epidemiologic profile of children with diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 420421.
  • 46
    Arslanian S, Suprasongsin C. Insulin sensitivity, lipids, and body composition in childhood: is “syndrome X” present? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 10581062.
  • 47
    Bacha F, Saad R, Gungor N, Janosky J, Arslanian SA. Obesity, regional fat distribution, and syndrome X in obese black versus white adolescents: race differential in diabetogenic and atherogenic risk factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 25342540.
  • 48
    Burnet D, Plaut A, Courtney R, Chin MH. A practical model for preventing type 2 diabetes in minority youth. Diabetes Educ 2002; 28: 779795.