SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    World Health Organization. WHO Global NCD InfoBase. The SuRF Report 1. <http:www.who.intncd_surveillanceinfobaseen>. Accessed 23 July 2007.
  • 2
    Ogden CL, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Mean body weight, height, and body mass index, United States 1960–2002. Advance data from vital and health statistics, no. 347. National Center for Health Statistics: Hyattsville, MD, 2004.
  • 3
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. <http:www.cdc.govbrfsstechnical_infodatasurveydata.htm>. Accessed 15 August 2007.
  • 4
    Tataranni PA, Harper IT, Snitker S et al. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure. Int J Obes Relat Disord 2003; 27: 15781583.
  • 5
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 2006; 295: 15491555.
  • 6
    Rotimi CN, Cooper RS, Ataman SL et al. Distribution of anthropometric variables and the prevalence of obesity in populations of West African origin: the International Collaborative Study on Hypertension in Blacks (ICSHIB). Obes Res 1995; 3 (Suppl 2):S95S105.
  • 7
    Kaufman JS, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Rotimi CN, McGee DL, Cooper RS. Obesity and hypertension in populations of African origin. Epidemiol 1996; 7: 398405.
  • 8
    Ferro-Luzzi A, Martino L. Obesity and physical activity. In: Chadwick DJ, Cardew G (eds). The Origins and Consequences of Obesity. Wiley & Sons: Chichester, UK, 1996, pp 207227.
  • 9
    Prentice A, Jebb S. Energy intake/physical activity interactions in the homeostasis of body weight regulation. Nut Rev 2004; 62: S98S104.
  • 10
    Popkin BM. The nutrition transition: an overview of world patterns of change. Nut Rev 2004; 62: S140S143.
  • 11
    Cooper R, Rotimi C, Ataman S et al. Hypertension prevalence in seven populations of African origin. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 160168.
  • 12
    Cooper R, Rotimi C, Kaufman JS et al. Prevalence of NIDDM among populations of the African diaspora. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 343348.
  • 13
    Schoeller DA, Ravussin E, Schutz Y et al. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: validation in humans and proposed calculations. Am J Physiol 1986; 250: R823R830.
  • 14
    Schoeller DA, Taylor PB. Precision of the doubly labeled water method using the two-point calculation. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1987; 41C: 215223.
  • 15
    Weir JBV. New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J Physiol 1949; 109: 19.
  • 16
    Reed GW, Hill JO. Measuring the thermic effect of food. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 164169.
  • 17
    World Health Organization. Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. WHO, Technical Report Series 724. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1985.
  • 18
    Schoeller DA, Kushner RF, Taylor WB, Dietz WH. Measurement of total body water: isotope dilution techniques. Report. Ross Laboratories: Columbus, OH, 1985.
  • 19
    Wang Z, Deurenberg P, Wang W et al. Hydration of fat-free mass: review and critique of a classic body-compositon constant. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 833841.
  • 20
    Stern RD, Dennett MD, Garbutt DJ. The start of the rains in West Africa. J Climatol 1981; 1: 5968.
  • 21
    Willett W, Stampfer MJ. Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124: 1727.
  • 22
    Schoeller DA. The shortage of O-18 water (Letter). Obes Res 1999; 7: 519.
  • 23
    James WPT, Ferro-Luzzi A, Waterlow JC. Definition of chronic energy deficiency in adults. Report of a working party of the International Dietary Energy Consultative Group. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988; 42: 969981.
  • 24
    Hemmingsson E, Ekelund U. Is the association between physical activity and body mass index obesity dependent? Int J Obes Relat Disord 2007; 31: 663668.
  • 25
    Luke A, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Rotimi CN et al. Activity energy expenditure and adiposity among black adults in Nigeria and the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 10451050.
  • 26
    Ferro-Luzzi A. The conceptual framework for estimating food energy requirement. Public Health Nutr 2005; 8: 940952.
  • 27
    Ferro-Luzzi A. Range of variation in energy expenditure and scope for regulation. In: Taylor TG, Jenkins NK (eds). Proc of the XIII International Congress of Nutrition. J. Libbey Press: London, 1986, pp 393399.
  • 28
    Esparza J, Fox C, Harper IT et al. Daily energy expenditure in Mexican and USA Pima Indians: low physical activity as a possible cause of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Disord 2000; 24: 5559.
  • 29
    Ferro-Luzzi A, Scaccini C, Taffese S, Aberra B, Demeke T. Seasonal energy deficiency in Ethiopian rural women. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990; 44 (Suppl 1):S7S18.
  • 30
    Luke A, Rotimi CN, Adeyemo AA et al. Comparability of resting energy expenditure in Nigerians and U.S. blacks. Obes Res 2000; 8: 351359.
  • 31
    Parra EJ, Marcini A, Akey J et al. Estimating African American admixture proportions by use of population-specific alleles. Am J Hum Genet 1998; 63: 18391851.
  • 32
    Gallagher D, Albu J, He Q et al. Small organs with a high metabolic rate explain lower resting energy expenditure in African American than white adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83: 10621067.
  • 33
    Luke A, Durazo-Arvizu R, Cao G et al. Positive association between resting energy expenditure and weight gain in a lean adult population. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83: 10761081.
  • 34
    Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Knowler WC et al. Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain. New Engl J Med 1988; 318: 467472.
  • 35
    Seidell JC, Muller DC, Sorkin JD, Andres R. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio and resting metabolic rate as predictors of weight gain: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992; 16: 667674.
  • 36
    Ekelund U, Yngve A, Brage S, Westerterp K, Sjöström M. Body movement and physical activity energy expenditure in children and adolescents: how to adjust for differences in body size and age. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 851856.
  • 37
    Allison DB, Paultre F, Goran MI, Poehlman ET, Heymsfield SB. Statistical considerations regarding the use of ratios to adjust data. Int J Obes Relat Disord 1995; 19: 644652.
  • 38
    Ball K, Owen N, Salmon J, Bauman A, Gore CJ. Associations of physical activity with body weight and fat in men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 914919.
  • 39
    Bernstein MS, Costanza MC, Morabia A. Association of physical activity intensity levels with overweight and obesity in a population-based sample of adults. Prev Med 2004; 38: 94104.
  • 40
    Westerterp KR, Goran MI. Relationship between physical activity related energy expenditure and body composition: a gender difference. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997; 21: 184188.
  • 41
    Schoeller DA, Jeffords G. Determinants of the energy costs of light activities: inferences for interpreting doubly labeled water data. Int J Obes Relat Disord 2002; 26: 97101.
  • 42
    Forsum E, Löf M, Schoeller DA. Calculation of energy expenditure in women using the MET system. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 15201525.
  • 43
    Schutz Y, Weinsier RL, Hunter GR. Assessment of free-living physical activity in humans: an overview of currently available and proposed new measures. Obes Res 2001; 9: 368379.
  • 44
    Weinsier RL, Hunter GR, Desmond RA et al. Free-living activity energy expenditure in women successful and unsuccessful at maintaining a normal body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 499504.
  • 45
    Levine JA, Lanningham-Foster LM, McCrady SK et al. Interindividual variation in posture allocation: possible role in human obesity. Science 2005; 307: 584586.