To examine the associations between birth weight and BMI, and total body composition, in overweight Latino adolescents. Two hundred and forty-two overweight Latino children (baseline age = 11.1 ± 1.7 years; BMI ≥ 85th percentile) were measured annually for up to 6 years (2.6 ± 1.4 observations/child, total 848 visits). Birth weight and history of gestational diabetes were obtained by parental interview. Visceral fat and subcutaneous abdominal fat were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, while total body fat, total lean tissue mass (LTM), trunk fat, and lean tissue trunk mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMI and BMI percentile were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention age appropriate cutoffs. Longitudinal linear mixed effects (LME) modeling was used to evaluate the influence of birth weight on subsequent changes in body composition and distribution of fat across puberty. Birth weight significantly predicted BMI (P < 0.001), total trunk fat (P < 0.001), total trunk LTM (P < 0.001), total fat mass (FM) (P < 0.001), and total LTM (P < 0.001), but not subcutaneous (P = 0.534) or visceral fat (P = 0.593) at age 11 years. Longitudinally, as participants transitioned into puberty, birth weight did not significantly predict any of the body composition or fat distribution measures (P > 0.05). Birth weight is significantly associated with increased adiposity and LTM and negatively associated with trunk fat mass and trunk lean mass at baseline; however these relationships did not predict rate of change of any of the variables as the children progress through adolescence.