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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) leads to improvements in satiety and obesity-related comorbidities. The mechanism(s) underlying these improvements are not known but may be revealed in part by discovery proteomics. Therefore, fasting plasma was collected from 12 subjects (mean BMI >45) during RYGBP and during a second procedure ∼17 months later. Body weight, obesity-related comorbidities, and medication use were decreased after RYGBP. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis was performed on a subset of seven samples using isobaric isotope-coded affinity tags (four plex iTRAQ). Initial proteomic analysis (n = 7) quantified and identified hundreds of plasma proteins. Manual inspection of the data revealed a 2.6 ± 0.5-fold increase in apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV, gene designation: APOA4), a ∼46-kDa glycoprotein synthesized mainly in the bypassed small bowel and liver after RYGBP. The change in apo A-IV was significantly greater than other apolipoproteins. Immunoblot analysis of the full longitudinal sample set (n = 12) indicated even higher increases (8.3 ± 0.2 fold) in apo A-IV. Thus iTRAQ may underestimate the changes in protein concentrations compared to western blotting of apo A-IV. Apo A-IV inhibits gastric emptying and serves as a satiety factor whose synthesis and secretion are increased by the ingestion of dietary fat. It also possesses anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. Based on these functions, we speculate changes in apo A-IV may contribute to weight loss as well as the improvements in inflammation and cardiovascular disease after RYGBP. In addition, the findings provide evidence validating the use of iTRAQ proteomics in discovery-based studies of post-RYGBP improvements in obesity-related medical comorbidities.