• 1
    Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002; 360: 473482.
  • 2
    Sourander A, Santalahti P, Haavisto A et al. Have there been changes in children's psychiatric symptoms and mental health service use? A 10-year comparison from Finland. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 43: 11341145.
  • 3
    Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, Lyketsos CG, Eaton WW. Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 11391147.
  • 4
    Lumeng JC, Gannon K, Cabral HJ, Frank DA, Zuckerman B. Association between clinically meaningful behavior problems and overweight in children. Pediatrics 2003; 112: 11381145.
  • 5
    Pine DS, Goldstein RB, Wolk S, Weissman MM. The association between childhood depression and adulthood body mass index. Pediatrics 2001; 107: 10491056.
  • 6
    Hasler G, Pine DS, Kleinbaum DG et al. Depressive symptoms during childhood and adult obesity: the Zurich Cohort Study. Mol Psychiatry 2005; 10: 842850.
  • 7
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Cohen ML, Yanovski SZ et al. A prospective study of psychological predictors of body fat gain among children at high risk for adult obesity. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 12031209.
  • 8
    Anderson SE, Cohen P, Naumova EN, Must A. Association of depression and anxiety disorders with weight change in a prospective community-based study of children followed up into adulthood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006; 160: 285291.
  • 9
    Franko DL, Striegel-Moore RH, Thompson D, Schreiber GB, Daniels SR. Does adolescent depression predict obesity in black and white young adult women? Psychol Med 2005; 35: 15051513.
  • 10
    Richardson LP, Davis R, Poulton R et al. A longitudinal evaluation of adolescent depression and adult obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 739745.
  • 11
    Goodman E, Whitaker RC. A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 497504.
  • 12
    Pine DS, Cohen P, Brook J, Coplan JD. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescence as predictors of obesity in early adulthood: a longitudinal study. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 13031310.
  • 13
    Wurtman JJ. Depression and weight gain: the serotonin connection. J Affect Disord 1993; 29: 183192.
  • 14
    Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 2002; 287: 24142423.
  • 15
    Anderson SE, Cohen P, Naumova EN, Must A. Relationship of childhood behavior disorders to weight gain from childhood into adulthood. Ambul Pediatr 2006; 6: 297301.
  • 16
    Pulkki-Raback L, Elovainio M, Kivimaki M, Raitakari OT, Keltikangas-Jarvinen L. Temperament in childhood predicts body mass in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Health Psychol 2005; 24: 307315.
  • 17
    Canals J, Domenech-Llaberia E, Fernandez-Ballart J, Marti-Henneberg C. Predictors of depression at eighteen. A 7-year follow-up study in a Spanish nonclinical population. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002; 11: 226233.
  • 18
    Haavisto A, Sourander A, Multimäki P et al. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among 18-year-old boys: a prospective 10-year follow-up study. J Affect Disord 2004; 83: 143154.
  • 19
    Aronen ET, Soininen M. Childhood depressive symptoms predict psychiatric problems in young adults. Can J Psychiatry 2000; 45: 465470.
  • 20
    Keeping JD, Najman JM, Morrison J et al. A prospective longitudinal study of social, psychological and obstetric factors in pregnancy: response rates and demographic characteristics of the 8556 respondents. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989; 96: 289297.
  • 21
    Najman JM, Bor W, O'Callaghan M et al. Cohort Profile: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP). Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34: 992997.
  • 22
    World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, 3–5 June 1997. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1998.
  • 23
    Achenbach TM. Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry: Burlington, VT, 1991.
  • 24
    Najman JM, Hallam D, Bor WB et al. Predictors of depression in very young children—a prospective study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2005; 40: 367374.
  • 25
    Stanger C, Achenbach TM, McConaughy SH. Three-year course of behavioral/emotional problems in a national sample of 4- to 16-year-olds: 3. Predictors of signs of disturbance. J Consult Clin Psychol 1993; 61: 839848.
  • 26
    Hernan MA, Hernandez-Diaz S, Werler MM, Mitchell AA. Causal knowledge as a prerequisite for confounding evaluation: an application to birth defects epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 155: 176184.
  • 27
    Bedford A, Foulds G. Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory of Anxiety and Depression. NFER: Winsdor, England, 1978.
  • 28
    Barnes GE, Olson DH. Parent-adolescent communication scale. In: Olson DH, McCubbin HI, Barnes A, Larsen M, Muxen M, Wilson M (eds). Family Inventories: Inventories Used in a National Survey of Families Across the Family Life Cycle. Family Social Science, University of Minnesota: St. Paul, MN, 1982, pp 3348.
  • 29
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 12401243.
  • 30
    Koenker R, Hallock K, Quantile regression. J Econ Perspect 2001; 15: 143156.
  • 31
    Moffitt TE, Caspi A. Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Dev Psychopathol 2001; 13: 355375.
  • 32
    Kim-Cohen J, Caspi A, Taylor A et al. MAOA, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children's mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 2006; 11: 903913.
  • 33
    Essex MJ, Kraemer HC, Armstrong JM et al. Exploring risk factors for the emergence of children's mental health problems. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 12461256.
  • 34
    Najman JM, Aird R, Bor W et al. The generational transmission of socioeconomic inequalities in child cognitive development and emotional health. Soc Sci Med 2004; 58: 11471158.
  • 35
    McNamara RK, Carlson SE. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and function: potential implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of psychopathology. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2006; 75: 329349.
  • 36
    Lissau I, Sorensen TI. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood. Lancet 1994; 343: 324327.
  • 37
    Johnson JG, Cohen P, Kasen S, Brook JS. Childhood adversities associated with risk for eating disorders or weight problems during adolescence or early adulthood. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 394400.
  • 38
    Taheri S. The link between short sleep duration and obesity: we should recommend more sleep to prevent obesity. Arch Dis Child 2006; 91: 881884.
  • 39
    Gregory AM, Rijsdijk FV, Dahl RE, McGuffin P, Eley TC. Associations between sleep problems, anxiety, and depression in twins at 8 years of age. Pediatrics 2006; 118: 11241132.
  • 40
    Bornstein SR, Schuppenies A, Wong ML, Licinio J. Approaching the shared biology of obesity and depression: the stress axis as the locus of gene-environment interactions. Mol Psychiatry 2006; 11: 892902.
  • 41
    Nagai N, Matsumoto T, Kita H, Moritani T. Autonomic nervous system activity and the state and development of obesity in Japanese school children. Obes Res 2003; 11: 2532.
  • 42
    McLennan W, Podger A. National Nutrition Survey: nutrient intakes and physical measurements, Australia, 1995. Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, Australia, 1998. (Catalogue no. 4805.0).