This study estimated the genetic and environmental determinants of plasma leptin and insulin levels and of obesity-related phenotypes. Included in this analysis were family members from 80 families living in kibbutz settlements, who participated in two examinations 8–10 years apart. We estimated that polygenes explained 30–50% of the adjusted leptin and insulin levels and 30–70% of the anthropometric phenotypes. This study demonstrated a significant genetic influence on longitudinal changes in leptin and BMI (h2 = 0.45) and small-to-moderate heritability estimates for changes in insulin and other obesity-related phenotypes. In bivariate genetic analyses, we observed positive genetic correlations between leptin and anthropometric phenotypes, suggesting that shared effects of the same sets of loci account for 20–30% of the additive genetic variance in these pairs of variables. Shared genetic factors also account for 20–25% of the additive genetic variance in insulin—anthropometric pairs of variables.