Leptin is known to be associated with regulation of body weight and fat content. The effects of exogenous leptin on abdominal visceral (VS) and subcutaneous (SC) fat volume and hepatic fat-to-water ratio in leptin-deficient obese mice were investigated by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Chemical shift-selected fat and water 1H MRI of control and leptin-treated mice were obtained 1 day before treatment and after 7 days of treatment (0.3 mg/kg/day). Hepatic fat-to-water ratio and VS fat volume decreased significantly with treatment, whereas SC fat volume did not change. Noninvasive measurement of fat and water content in different body regions using MRI should prove useful for evaluating new drugs for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders.