• 1
    Astrup A, Larsen T Meinert, Harper A. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? Lancet 2004; 364: 897899.
  • 2
    Anderson JW, Konz EC, Frederich RC, Wood CL. Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 579584.
  • 3
    Lakka TA, Laaksonen DE. Physical activity in prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2007; 32: 7688.
  • 4
    Cummings S, Parham ES, Strain GW. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102: 11451155.
  • 5
    Jakicic JM, Clark K, Coleman E et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 21452156.
  • 6
    Coggan AR, Kohrt WM, Spina RJ, Bier DM, Holloszy JO. Endurance training decreases plasma glucose turnover and oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise in men. J Appl Physiol 1990; 68: 990996.
  • 7
    Febbraio MA, Dancey J. Skeletal muscle energy metabolism during prolonged, fatiguing exercise. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 23412347.
  • 8
    Freedman M, King J, Kennedy E. Popular diets: a scientific review. Obes Res 2001; 9 (Suppl 1): S1S40.
  • 9
    Bandini LG, Schoeller DA, Dietz WH. Metabolic differences in response to a high-fat vs. a high-carbohydrate diet. Obes Res 1994; 2: 348354.
  • 10
    Bogardus C, LaGrange BM, Horton ES, Sims EA. Comparison of carbohydrate-containing and carbohydrate-restricted hypocaloric diets in the treatment of obesity. Endurance and metabolic fuel homeostasis during strenuous exercise. J Clin Invest 1981; 68: 399404.
  • 11
    Phinney SD, Horton ES, Sims EA et al. Capacity for moderate exercise in obese subjects after adaptation to a hypocaloric, ketogenic diet. J Clin Invest 1980; 66: 11521161.
  • 12
    Phinney SD, LaGrange BM, O'Connell M, Danforth E Jr. Effects of aerobic exercise on energy expenditure and nitrogen balance during very low calorie dieting. Metabolism 1988; 37: 758765.
  • 13
    Russell DM, Leiter LA, Whitwell J, Marliss EB, Jeejeebhoy KN. Skeletal muscle function during hypocaloric diets and fasting: a comparison with standard nutritional assessment parameters. Am J Clin Nutr 1983; 37: 133138.
  • 14
    Walberg JL, Ruiz VK, Tarlton SL, Hinkle DE, Thye FW. Exercise capacity and nitrogen loss during a high or low carbohydrate diet. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 3443.
  • 15
    Halyburton AK, Brinkworth GD, Wilson CJ et al. Low- and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets have similar effects on mood but not cognitive performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 580587.
  • 16
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Executive summary. Cardiol Rev 2005; 13: 322327.
  • 17
    Baecke JA, Burema J, Frijters JE. A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 936942.
  • 18
    Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med 1970; 2: 9298.
  • 19
    Frayn KN. Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange. J Appl Physiol 1983; 55: 628634.
  • 20
    Crosby CA, Wehbé MA, Mawr B. Hand strength: normative values. J Hand Surg [Am] 1994; 19: 665670.
  • 21
    Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Love DM et al. Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metabolism 2002; 51: 864870.
  • 22
    Volek JS, Westman EC. Very-low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets revisited. Cleve Clin J Med 2002; 69: 849, 853, 856858 passim.
  • 23
    Volek J, Sharman M, Gomez A et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2004; 1: 13.
  • 24
    Bravata DM, Sanders L, Huang J et al. Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review. JAMA 2003; 289: 18371850.
  • 25
    Krieger JW, Sitren HS, Daniels MJ, Langkamp-Henken B. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83: 260274.
  • 26
    Bergström J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B. Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiol Scand 1967; 71: 140150.
  • 27
    van Loon LJ, Greenhaff PL, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans. J Physiol 2001; 536: 295304.
  • 28
    Galbo H, Holst JJ, Christensen NJ. The effect of different diets and of insulin on the hormonal response to prolonged exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 1979; 107: 1932.
  • 29
    O'Keefe KA, Keith RE, Wilson GD, Blessing DC. Dietary carbohydrate intake and endurance exercise performance of trained female cyclists. Nutr Res 1989; 9: 819830.
  • 30
    White AM, Johnston CS, Swan PD, Tjonn SL, Sears B. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107: 17921796.
  • 31
    Chen MJ, Fan X, Moe ST. Criterion-related validity of the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale in healthy individuals: a meta-analysis. J Sports Sci 2002; 20: 873899.
  • 32
    Garcin M, Mille-Hamard L, Billat V. Influence of aerobic fitness level on measured and estimated perceived exertion during exhausting runs. Int J Sports Med 2004; 25: 270277.
  • 33
    Ashutosh K, Methrotra K, Fragale-Jackson J. Effects of sustained weight loss and exercise on aerobic fitness in obese women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1997; 37: 252257.
  • 34
    Refsum HE, Holter PH, Lovig T, Haffner JF, Stadaas JO. Pulmonary function and energy expenditure after marked weight loss in obese women: observations before and one year after gastric banding. Int J Obes 1990; 14: 175183.
  • 35
    Freyschuss U, Melcher A. Exercise energy expenditure in extreme obesity: influence of ergometry type and weight loss. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1978; 38: 753759.
  • 36
    Phinney SD. Ketogenic diets and physical performance. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2004; 1: 2.
  • 37
    Peters SJ, Leblanc PJ. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2004; 1: 7.
  • 38
    Helge JW, Richter EA, Kiens B. Interaction of training and diet on metabolism and endurance during exercise in man. J Physiol 1996; 492 (Pt 1): 293306.
  • 39
    Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Wolfe RR, Blackburn GL. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: physical and biochemical adaptation. Metabolism 1983; 32: 757768.
  • 40
    Miller SL, Wolfe RR. Physical exercise as a modulator of adaptation to low and high carbohydrate and low and high fat intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53 (Suppl 1): S112S119.
  • 41
    Owen OF, Morgan AP, Kemp HG et al. Brain metabolism during fasting. J Clin Invest 1967; 46: 15891594.
  • 42
    Scott CB, Carpenter R, Taylor A, Gordon NF. Effect of macronutrient composition of an energy-restrictive diet on maximal physical performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24: 814818.
  • 43
    Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Clark KL et al. Physiological adaptations to a weight-loss dietary regimen and exercise programs in women. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 270279.
  • 44
    Keim NL, Barbieri TF, Van Loan MD, Anderson BL. Energy expenditure and physical performance in overweight women: response to training with and without caloric restriction. Metabolism 1990; 39: 651658.
  • 45
    Pronk NP, Donnelly JE, Pronk SJ. Strength changes induced by extreme dieting and exercise in severely obese females. J Am Coll Nutr 1992; 11: 152158.
  • 46
    Rolland Y, Lauwers-Cances V, Cristini C et al. Disability in obese elderly women: Lower limb strength and recreational physical activity. Obes Res Clin Pract 2007; 1: 3951.