Few randomized trials attempt to improve insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic risks in overweight Latino youth. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a modified carbohydrate nutrition program combined with strength training on insulin sensitivity, adiposity, and other type 2 diabetes risk factors in overweight Latino adolescents. In a 16-week randomized trial, 54 overweight Latino adolescents (15.5 ± 1.0 years) were randomly assigned to: (i) Control (C; n = 16), (ii) Nutrition (N; n = 21), or (iii) Nutrition + Strength training (N+ST; n = 17). The N group received modified carbohydrate nutrition classes (once per week), while the N+ST received the same nutrition classes plus strength training (twice per week). The following were measured at pre- and postintervention: strength by 1-repetition maximum, dietary intake by 3-day records, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, glucose/insulin indices by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modeling. Across intervention group effects were tested using analysis of covariance with post hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant overall intervention effect was found for improvement in bench press (P < 0.001) and reductions in energy (P = 0.05), carbohydrate (P = 0.04) and fat intake (P = 0.03). There were no significant intervention effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition, or most glucose/insulin indices with the exception of glucose incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (P = 0.05), which decreased in the N and N+ST group by 18 and 6.3% compared to a 32% increase in the C group. In conclusion, this intense, culturally tailored intervention resulted in no significant intervention effects on measured risk factors with the exception of a beneficial effect on glycemic response to oral glucose.