• 1
    Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN et al. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science 2007; 316: 889894.
  • 2
    Zeggini E, Weedon MN, Lindgren CM et al. Replication of genome-wide association signals in UK samples reveals risk loci for type 2 diabetes. Science 2007; 316: 13361341.
  • 3
    Scott LJ, Mohlke KL, Bonnycastle LL et al. A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. Science 2007; 316: 13411345.
  • 4
    Loos RJ, Bouchard C. FTO: the first gene contributing to common forms of human obesity. Obes Rev 2008; 9: 246250.
  • 5
    Andreasen CH, Stender-Petersen KL, Mogensen MS et al. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation. Diabetes 2008; 57: 95101.
  • 6
    Rampersaud E, Mitchell BD, Pollin TI et al. Physical activity and the association of common FTO gene variants with body mass index and obesity. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 17911797.
  • 7
    Bouchard C, Leon AS, Rao DC et al. The HERITAGE family study. Aims, design, and measurement protocol. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 721729.
  • 8
    Skinner JS, Wilmore KM, Krasnoff JB et al. Adaptation to a standardized training program and changes in fitness in a large, heterogeneous population: the HERITAGE Family Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 157161.
  • 9
    Behnke A, Wilmore J. Evaluation and Regulation of Body Build and Composition. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1974.
  • 10
    Wilmore JH, Vodak PA, Parr RB, Girandola RN, Billing JE. Further simplification of a method for determination of residual lung volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1980; 12: 216218.
  • 11
    Meenely GR, Kaltreider NL. The volume of the lung determined by helium dilution. Description of the method and comparison with other procedures. J Clin Invest 1949; 28: 129139.
  • 12
    Motley HL. Comparison of a simple helium closed with the oxygen open-circuit method for measuring residual air. Am Rev Tuberc 1957; 76: 601615.
  • 13
    Siri WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. In: Brozek J, Henschel A (eds). Techniques for Measuring Body Composition. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council: Washington, DC, 1961, pp 223244.
  • 14
    Lohman TG. Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1986; 14: 325357.
  • 15
    Schutte JE, Townsend EJ, Hugg J et al. Density of lean body mass is greater in blacks than in whites. J Appl Physiol 1984; 56: 16471649.
  • 16
    Ortiz O, Russell M, Daley TL et al. Differences in skeletal muscle and bone mineral mass between black and white females and their relevance to estimates of body composition. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55: 813.
  • 17
    Wilmore JH, Stanforth PR, Domenick MA et al. Reproducibility of anthropometric and body composition measurements: the HERITAGE Family Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997; 21: 297303.
  • 18
    Abecasis GR, Cardon LR, Cookson WO. A general test of association for quantitative traits in nuclear families. Am J Hum Genet 2000; 66: 279292.
  • 19
    Wilmore JH, Després JP, Stanforth PR et al. Alterations in body weight and composition consequent to 20 wk of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 346352.
  • 20
    Gerken T, Girard CA, Tung YC et al. The obesity-associated FTO gene encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylase. Science 2007; 318: 14691472.
  • 21
    Sanchez-Pulido L, Andrade-Navarro MA. The FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene codes for a novel member of the non-heme dioxygenase superfamily. BMC Biochem 2007; 8: 23.
  • 22
    Stratigopoulos G, Padilla SL, LeDuc CA et al. Regulation of Fto/Ftm gene expression in mice and humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008; 294: R1185R1196.
  • 23
    Fredriksson R, Hägglund M, Olszewski PK et al. The obesity gene, FTO, is of ancient origin, up-regulated during food deprivation and expressed in neurons of feeding-related nuclei of the brain. Endocrinology 2008; 149: 20622071.
  • 24
    Wahlen K, Sjolin E, Hoffstedt J. The common rs9939609 gene variant of the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene FTO is related to fat cell lipolysis. J Lipid Res 2008; 49: 607611.