• 1
    Fujioka S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, Tarui S. Contribution of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in human obesity. Metab Clin Exp 1987; 36: 5459.
  • 2
    Albu JB, Murphy L, Frager DH, Johnson JA, Pi-Sunyer FX. Visceral fat and race-dependent health risks in obese nondiabetic premenopausal women. Diabetes 1997; 46: 456462.
  • 3
    Goodpaster BH, Thaete FL, Simoneau JA, Kelley DE. Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat. Diabetes 1997; 46: 15791585.
  • 4
    Goodpaster BH, Krishnaswami S, Harris TB et al. Obesity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome in older men and women. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 777783.
  • 5
    Després JP, Nadeau A, Tremblay A et al. Role of deep abdominal fat in the association between regional adipose tissue distribution and glucose tolerance in obese women. Diabetes 1989; 38: 304309.
  • 6
    Peiris AN, Sothmann MS, Hennes MI et al. Relative contribution of obesity and body fat distribution to alterations in glucose insulin homeostasis: predictive values of selected indices in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 49: 758764.
  • 7
    Zamboni M, Armellini F, Milani MP et al. Body fat distribution in pre- and post-menopausal women: metabolic and anthropometric variables and their inter-relationships. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992; 16: 495504.
  • 8
    Rader DJ. Effect of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and intra-abdominal adiposity on the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2007; 120 (3 Suppl 1): S12S18.
  • 9
    Nicklas BJ, Penninx BW, Cesari M et al. Association of visceral adipose tissue with incident myocardial infarction in older men and women: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160: 741749.
  • 10
    Kanaley JA, Giannopoulou I, Tillapaugh-Fay G, Nappi JS, Ploutz-Snyder LL. Racial differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in postmenopausal black and white women. Metab Clin Exp 2003; 52: 186191.
  • 11
    Tchernof A, Desmeules A, Richard C et al. Ovarian hormone status and abdominal visceral adipose tissue metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 34253430.
  • 12
    Guthrie JR, Dennerstein L, Dudley EC. Weight gain and the menopause: a 5-year prospective study. Climacteric 1999; 2: 205211.
  • 13
    Carr MC. The emergence of the metabolic syndrome with menopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 24042411.
  • 14
    Lovejoy JC, Champagne CM, de Jonge L, Xie H, Smith SR. Increased visceral fat and decreased energy expenditure during the menopausal transition. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008; 32: 949958.
  • 15
    Matthews KA, Meilahn E, Kuller LH et al. Menopause and risk factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 641646.
  • 16
    Cnop M, Landchild MJ, Vidal J et al. The concurrent accumulation of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat explains the association between insulin resistance and plasma leptin concentrations: distinct metabolic effects of two fat compartments. Diabetes 2002; 51: 10051015.
  • 17
    Berg AH, Scherer PE. Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 2005; 96: 939949.
  • 18
    Després JP. Cardiovascular disease under the influence of excess visceral fat. Crit Pathw Cardiol 2007; 6: 5159.
  • 19
    Janssen I, Powell LH, Crawford S, Lasley B, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Menopause and the metabolic syndrome: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 15681575.
  • 20
    Guthrie JR, Dennerstein L, Taffe JR et al. Central abdominal fat and endogenous hormones during the menopausal transition. Fertil Steril 2003; 79: 13351340.
  • 21
    Lovejoy JC, Bray GA, Bourgeois MO et al. Exogenous androgens influence body composition and regional body fat distribution in obese postmenopausal women—a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 21982203.
  • 22
    Yen SSC, Jaffe RB, Barbieri RL. Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management, 4th edn. Saunders: Philadelphia, 1999.
  • 23
    Sowers MF, Crawford SL, Sternfeld B. SWAN: a multicenter, multiethnic, community-based cohort study of women and the menopausal transition. In: Lobo RA, Kelsey J, Marcus R (eds). Menopause: Biology and Pathobiology. Academic: San Diego, CA; London, 2000, pp. 175188.
  • 24
    Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Scherzinger AL et al. Insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and abdominal fat: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study. Diabetes 2003; 52: 24902496.
  • 25
    Hill JO, Sidney S, Lewis CE et al. Racial differences in amounts of visceral adipose tissue in young adults: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 381387.
  • 26
    Yoshizumi T, Nakamura T, Yamane M et al. Abdominal fat: standardized technique for measurement at CT. Radiology 1999; 211: 283286.
  • 27
    Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Levy D et al. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 1998; 97: 18371847.
  • 28
    Warnick GR, Albers JJ. A comprehensive evaluation of the heparin-manganese precipitation procedure for estimating high density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res 1978; 19: 6576.
  • 29
    Steiner PM, Freidel J, Bremner W, Stein JH. Standardization of micromethods for plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol with the lipid clinics' methodology. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1981; 19: 850.
  • 30
    Radloff LS. The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977; 1: 385401.
  • 31
    Roberts RE. Reliability of the CES-D Scale in different ethnic contexts. Psychiatry Res 1980; 2: 125134.
  • 32
    Myers JK, Weissman MM. Use of a self-report symptom scale to detect depression in a community sample. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137: 10811084.
  • 33
    Sternfeld B, Ainsworth BE, Quesenberry CP. Physical activity patterns in a diverse population of women. Prev Med 1999; 28: 313323.
  • 34
    Wallace TM, Levy JC, Matthews DR. Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 14871495.
  • 35
    Berman DM, Rodrigues LM, Nicklas BJ et al. Racial disparities in metabolism, central obesity, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 97103.
  • 36
    Burger HG. The endocrinology of the menopause. Maturitas 1996; 23: 129136.
  • 37
    Legro RS. Polycystic ovary syndrome and cardiovascular disease: a premature association? Endocr Rev 2003; 24: 302312.
  • 38
    Kalme T, Loukovaara M, Koistinen R et al. Estradiol increases the production of sex hormone-binding globulin but not insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in cultured human hepatoma cells. Fertil Steril 1999; 72: 325329.
  • 39
    Dieudonne MN, Pecquery R, Boumediene A, Leneveu MC, Giudicelli Y. Androgen receptors in human preadipocytes and adipocytes: regional specificities and regulation by sex steroids. Am J Physiol 1998; 274: C1645C1652.
  • 40
    Phillips GB, Jing T, Heymsfield SB. Does insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, or a sex hormone alteration underlie the metabolic syndrome? Studies in women. Metab Clin Exp 2008; 57: 838844.
  • 41
    Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 17011712.
  • 42
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 321333.