• 1
    Omran AR. The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. 1971. Milbank Q 2005; 83: 731757.
  • 2
    Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 10471053.
  • 3
    Mbanya JC, Wilkes R, Bennett F et al. Standardised study of glucose tolerance and diabetes prevalence in 4 African (origin) populations in Cameroon, Jamaica and migrants to Britain. Diabetologia 1996; 39: 728.
  • 4
    Sobngwi E, Mbanya JC, Unwin NC et al. Exposure over the life course to an urban environment and its relation with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in rural and urban Cameroon. Int J Epidemiol 2004; 33: 769776.
  • 5
    Fezeu L, Minkoulou E, Balkau B et al. Association between socioeconomic status and adiposity in urban Cameroon. Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35: 105111.
  • 6
    Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P. The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28 (Suppl 3): S2S9.
  • 7
    Ebersole KE, Dugas LR, Durazo-Arvizu RA et al. Energy expenditure and adiposity in Nigerian and African-American women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 21482154.
  • 8
    Luke A, Kramer H, Adeyemo A et al. Relationship between blood pressure and physical activity assessed with stable isotopes. J Hum Hypertens 2005; 19: 127132.
  • 9
    Pereira MA, Kriska AM, Joswiak ML et al. Physical inactivity and glucose intolerance in the multiethnic island of Mauritius. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 16261634.
  • 10
    Sobngwi E, Mbanya JCN, Unwin NC et al. Physical activity and its relationship with obesity, hypertension and diabetes in urban and rural Cameroon. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 10091016.
  • 11
    Levitt NS, Steyn K, Lambert EV et al. Modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a peri-urban community in South Africa. Diabet Med 1999; 16: 946950.
  • 12
    Hossain P, Kawar B, El Nahas M. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world—a growing challenge. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 213215.
  • 13
    Wareham NJ, Rennie KL. The assessment of physical activity in individuals and populations: why try to be more precise about how physical activity is assessed? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22 (Suppl 2): S30S38.
  • 14
    Rennie KL, Wareham NJ. The validation of physical activity instruments for measuring energy expenditure: problems and pitfalls. Public Health Nutr 1998; 1: 265271.
  • 15
    Westerterp KR. Physical activity assessment with accelerometers. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 23 (Suppl 3): S45S49.
  • 16
    Wareham NJ, Hennings SJ, Prentice AM, Day NE. Feasibility of heart-rate monitoring to estimate total level and pattern of energy expenditure in a population-based epidemiological study: the Ely Young Cohort Feasibility Study 1994–5. Br J Nutr 1997; 78: 889900.
  • 17
    Brage S, Brage N, Franks PW, Ekelund U, Wareham NJ. Reliability and validity of the combined heart rate and movement sensor Actiheart. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59: 561570.
  • 18
    Swartz AM, Strath SJ, Bassett DR Jr et al. Estimation of energy expenditure using CSA accelerometers at hip and wrist sites. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9 Suppl): S450S456.
  • 19
    Hendelman D, Miller K, Baggett C, Debold E, Freedson P. Validity of accelerometry for the assessment of moderate intensity physical activity in the field. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9 Suppl): S442S449.
  • 20
    Freedson PS, Melanson E, Sirard J. Calibration of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 777781.
  • 21
    St Onge MP, Rubiano F, Jones A Jr, Heymsfield SB. A new hand-held indirect calorimeter to measure postprandial energy expenditure. Obes Res 2004; 12: 704709.
  • 22
    Nieman DC, Trone GA, Austin MD. A new handheld device for measuring resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption. J Am Diet Assoc 2003; 103: 588592.
  • 23
    Weir JB. New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J Physiol 1949; 109: 19.
  • 24
    Hoffman DJ, Sawaya AL, Coward WA et al. Energy expenditure of stunted and nonstunted boys and girls living in the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 10251031.
  • 25
    Coward WA. Stable isotopic methods for measuring energy expenditure. The doubly-labelled-water (2H2(18)O) method: principles and practice. Proc Nutr Soc 1988; 47: 209218.
  • 26
    Cole TJ, Coward WA. Precision and accuracy of doubly labeled water energy expenditure by multipoint and two-point methods. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: E965E973.
  • 27
    Ritz P, Coward WA. Doubly labelled water measurement of total energy expenditure. Diabete Metab 1995; 21: 241251.
  • 28
    Schoeller DA, Ravussin E, Schutz Y et al. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation. Am J Physiol 1986; 250: R823R830.
  • 29
    Elia M, Livesey G. Theory and validity of indirect calorimetry during net lipid synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 47: 591607.
  • 30
    Corder K, Brage S, Ramachandran A et al. Comparison of two Actigraph models for assessing free-living physical activity in Indian adolescents. J Sports Sci 2007; 25: 16071611.
  • 31
    Corder K, Ekelund U, Steele RM, Wareham NJ, Brage S. Assessment of physical activity in youth. J Appl Physiol 2008; 105: 977987.
  • 32
    Schofield WN. Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1985; 39 (Suppl 1): 541.
  • 33
    Armitage P, Berry G, Mathews JNS. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Blackwell Science: Oxford, 2002.
  • 34
    Bland JM, Altman DG. Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Stat Methods Med Res 1999; 8: 135160.
  • 35
    Leenders NY, Sherman WM, Nagaraja HN. Energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry and doubly labeled water: do they agree? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 21652172.
  • 36
    Ekelund U, Sjostrom M, Yngve A et al. Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 275281.
  • 37
    Strath SJ, Bassett JR, Swartz AM. Comparison of MTI accelerometer cut-points for predicting time spent in physical activity. Int J Sports Med 2003; 24: 298303.
  • 38
    Masse LC, Fulton JE, Watson KL et al. Influence of body composition on physical activity validation studies using doubly labeled water. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96: 13571364.
  • 39
    Brage S, Wedderkopp N, Franks PW, Andersen LB, Froberg K. Reexamination of validity and reliability of the CSA monitor in walking and running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35: 14471454.
  • 40
    Rowlands AV, Stone MR, Eston RG. Influence of speed and step frequency during walking and running on motion sensor output. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 716727.
  • 41
    Crouter SE, Churilla JR, Bassett DR. Estimating energy expenditure using accelerometers. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006; 98: 601612.
  • 42
    Bassett DR Jr, Ainsworth BE, Swartz AM et al. Validity of four motion sensors in measuring moderate intensity physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9 Suppl): S471S480.
  • 43
    Huss-Ashmore R, Goodman JL, Sibiya TE, Stein TP. Energy expenditure of young Swazi women as measured by the doubly-labelled water method. Eur J Clin Nutr 1989; 43: 737748.
  • 44
    Singh J, Prentice AM, Diaz E et al. Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method. Br J Nutr 1989; 62: 315329.
  • 45
    Heini AF, Minghelli G, Diaz E, Prentice AM, Schutz Y. Free-living energy expenditure assessed by two different methods in rural Gambian men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50: 284289.
  • 46
    Luke A, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Rotimi CN et al. Activity energy expenditure and adiposity among black adults in Nigeria and the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 10451050.
  • 47
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Atlanta, GA, 1996.
  • 48
    FAO/WHO/UNU. Human energy requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series 1. Rome, 2001.