• 1
    Spiegelman BM, Flier JS. Obesity and the regulation of energy balance. Cell 2001; 104: 531543.
  • 2
    Jakicic JM, Otto AD. Treatment and prevention of obesity: what is the role of exercise? Nutr Rev 2006; 64: S57S61.
  • 3
    Melzer K, Kayser B, Saris WH, Pichard C. Effects of physical activity on food intake. Clin Nutr 2005; 24: 885895.
  • 4
    Venables MC, Achten J, Jeukendrup AE. Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98: 160167.
  • 5
    Pomp D. Genetic dissection of obesity in polygenic animal models. Behav Genet 1997; 27: 285306.
  • 6
    Swallow JG, Koteja P, Carter PA, Garland T Jr. Food consumption and body composition in mice selected for high wheel-running activity. J Comp Physiol [B] 2001; 171: 651659.
  • 7
    Swallow JG, Carter PA, Garland T Jr. Artificial selection for increased wheel-running behavior in house mice. Behav Genet 1998; 28: 227237.
  • 8
    Malisch JL, Breuner CW, Gomes FR, Chappell MA, Garland T Jr. Circadian pattern of total and free corticosterone concentrations, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and physical activity in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior. Gen Comp Endocrinol 2008; 156: 210217.
  • 9
    Vaanholt LM, Jonas I, Doornbos M et al. Metabolic and behavioral responses to high-fat feeding in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008; 32: 15661575.
  • 10
    Swallow JG, Koteja P, Carter PA, Garland T. Artificial selection for increased wheel-running-activity in house mice results in decreased body mass at maturity. J Exp Biol 1999; 202: 25132520.
  • 11
    Dumke CL, Rhodes JS, Garland T Jr et al. Genetic selection of mice for high voluntary wheel running: effect on skeletal muscle glucose uptake. J Appl Physiol 2001; 91: 12891297.
  • 12
    Hanrahan JP, Eisen EJ, Legates JE. Effects of population size and selection intensity on short-term responses to selection for post-weaning gain in mice. Genetics 1973; 73: 513530.
  • 13
    Allan MF, Eisen EJ, Pomp D. The M16 mouse: an outbred animal model of early onset polygenic obesity and diabesity. Obes Res 2004; 12: 13971407.
  • 14
    Legates JE. Direct and correlated responses to selection in mice. In: Bogart R (ed). Genetic Lectures, Oregon State University Press: Corvallis, Oregon, 1969, pp 149165.
  • 15
    Eisen EJ. Restricted index selection in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight:directed responses. Theor Appl Genet 1992; 83: 973980.
  • 16
    Eisen EJ. Selection for components related to body composition in mice: direct responses. Theor Appl Genet 1987; 74: 793801.
  • 17
    Fan YK, Croom WJ Jr, Daniel LR et al. Selection for body composition does not affect energetic efficiency of jejunal glucose uptake in mice. J Nutr 1996; 126: 28612866.
  • 18
    Moody DE, Pomp D, Nielsen MK. Variability in metabolic rate, feed intake and fatness among selection and inbred lines of mice. Genet Res 1997; 70: 225235.
  • 19
    Lightfoot JT, Turner MJ, Daves M, Vordermark A, Kleeberger SR. Genetic influence on daily wheel running activity level. Physiol Genomics 2004; 19: 270276.
  • 20
    Hannon RM, Kelly SA, Middleton KM et al. Phenotypic effects of the “mini-muscle” allele in a large HR × C57BL/6J mouse backcross. J Hered 2008; 99: 349354.
  • 21
    Eisen EJ, Leatherwood JM. Predicting percent fat in mice. Growth 1981; 45: 100107.
  • 22
    Koteja P, Carter PA, Swallow JG, Garland T Jr. Food wasting by house mice: variation among individuals, families, and genetic lines. Physiol Behav 2003; 80: 375383.
  • 23
    Zurlo F, Lillioja S, Puente A Esposito-Del et al. Low ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation as predictor of weight gain: study of 24-h RQ. Am J Physiol 1990; 259: E650E657.
  • 24
    Krogh A, Lindhard J. The relative value of fat and carbohydrate as sources of muscular energy: with appendices on the correlation between standard metabolism and the respiratory quotient during rest and work. Biochem J 1920; 14: 290363.
  • 25
    Achten J, Gleeson M, Jeukendrup AE. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 9297.
  • 26
    Thompson DL, Townsend KM, Boughey R, Patterson K, Bassett DR Jr. Substrate use during and following moderate- and low-intensity exercise: implications for weight control. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998; 78: 4349.
  • 27
    Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS et al. Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Am J Physiol 1993; 265: E380E391.
  • 28
    Achten J, Jeukendrup AE. Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet. Nutrition 2004; 20: 716727.
  • 29
    Girard I, McAleer MW, Rhodes JS, Garland T Jr. Selection for high voluntary wheel-running increases speed and intermittency in house mice (Mus domesticus). J Exp Biol 2001; 204: 43114320.
  • 30
    Guderley H, Joanisse DR, Mokas S, Bilodeau GM, Garland T Jr. Altered fibre types in gastrocnemius muscle of high wheel-running selected mice with mini-muscle phenotypes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2008; 149: 490500.
  • 31
    Rezende EL, Chappell MA, Gomes FR, Malisch JL, Garland T Jr. Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running. J Exp Biol 2005; 208: 24472458.
  • 32
    Ohkawara K, Tanaka S, Miyachi M, Ishikawa-Takata K, Tabata I. A dose–response relation between aerobic exercise and visceral fat reduction: systematic review of clinical trials. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007; 31: 17861797.
  • 33
    Dohm MR, Richardson CS, Garland T Jr. Exercise physiology of wild and random-bred laboratory house mice and their reciprocal hybrids. Am J Physiol 1994; 267: R1098R1108.
  • 34
    Bruell JH. Heterotic inheritance of wheel running in mice. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1964; 58: 159163.
  • 35
    Bruell JH. Inheritance of behavioral and physiological characters of mice and the problem of heterosis. Am Zool 1964; 4: 125138.
  • 36
    Simoncic M, Horvat S, Stevenson PL et al. Divergent physical activity and novel alternative responses to high fat feeding in polygenic fat and lean mice. Behav Genet 2008; 38: 292300.
  • 37
    Taylor CR, Schmidt-Nielsen K, Raab JL. Scaling of energetic cost of running to body size in mammals. Am J Physiol 1970; 219: 11041107.
  • 38
    Kane SL, Garland T Jr, Carter PA. Basal metabolic rate of aged mice is affected by random genetic drift but not by selective breeding for high early-age locomotor activity or chronic wheel access. Physiol Biochem Zool 2008; 81: 288300.
  • 39
    Rezende EL, Gomes FR, Malisch JL, Chappell MA, Garland T Jr. Maximal oxygen consumption in relation to subordinate traits in lines of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running. J Appl Physiol 2006; 101: 477485.
  • 40
    Bilodeau GM, Guderley H, Joanisse DR, Garland T Jr. Reduction of type IIb myosin and IIB fibers in tibialis anterior muscle of mini-muscle mice from high-activity lines. J Exp Zool Part A: Ecol Genet Physiol, in press.
  • 41
    Goedecke JH, St Clair, Gibson A, Grobler L et al. Determinants of the variability in respiratory exchange ratio at rest and during exercise in trained athletes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000; 279: E1325E1334.
  • 42
    Rankinen T, Bouchard C. Gene-physical activity interactions: overview of human studies. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16 (Suppl 3): S47S50.
  • 43
    Lightfoot JT, Turner MJ, Pomp D, Kleeberger SR, Leamy LJ. Quantitative trait loci for physical activity traits in mice. Physiol Genomics 2008; 32: 401408.
  • 44
    Chagnon YC, Rice T, Perusse L et al. Genomic scan for genes affecting body composition before and after training in Caucasians from HERITAGE. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90: 17771787.