• 1
    Bonora E, Kiechl S, Willeit J et al. Insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment predicts incident symptomatic cardiovascular disease in caucasian subjects from the general population: the Bruneck study. Diabetes Care 2007;30:318324.
  • 2
    Fujimoto WY. The importance of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2000;108(Suppl 6a): 9S14S.
  • 3
    Jeppesen J, Hansen TW, Rasmussen S et al. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:21122119.
  • 4
    McLaughlin T, Allison G, Abbasi F, Lamendola C, Reaven G. Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors among normal weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Metab Clin Exp 2004;53:495499.
  • 5
    Després JP, Lemieux I, Bergeron J et al. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008;28:10391049.
  • 6
    Fox CS, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U et al. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2007;116:3948.
  • 7
    Abate N, Garg A, Peshock RM, Stray-Gundersen J, Grundy SM. Relationships of generalized and regional adiposity to insulin sensitivity in men. J Clin Invest 1995;96:8898.
  • 8
    Goodpaster BH, Thaete FL, Simoneau JA, Kelley DE. Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat. Diabetes 1997;46:15791585.
  • 9
    Kelley DE, Thaete FL, Troost F, Huwe T, Goodpaster BH. Subdivisions of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000;278:E941E948.
  • 10
    Raji A, Seely EW, Arky RA, Simonson DC. Body fat distribution and insulin resistance in healthy Asian Indians and Caucasians. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:53665371.
  • 11
    Sites CK, Calles-Escandón J, Brochu M et al. Relation of regional fat distribution to insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril 2000;73:6165.
  • 12
    Tulloch-Reid MK, Hanson RL, Sebring NG et al. Both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue correlate highly with insulin resistance in african americans. Obes Res 2004;12:13521359.
  • 13
    Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Scherzinger AL et al. Insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and abdominal fat: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study. Diabetes 2003;52:24902496.
  • 14
    Brochu M, Starling RD, Tchernof A et al. Visceral adipose tissue is an independent correlate of glucose disposal in older obese postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:23782384.
  • 15
    Rendell M, Hulthén UL, Törnquist C, Groop L, Mattiasson I. Relationship between abdominal fat compartments and glucose and lipid metabolism in early postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:744749.
  • 16
    Ross R, Freeman J, Hudson R, Janssen I. Abdominal obesity, muscle composition, and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:50445051.
  • 17
    Ross R, Aru J, Freeman J, Hudson R, Janssen I. Abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in obese men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002;282:E657E663.
  • 18
    Hayashi T, Boyko EJ, McNeely MJ et al. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with an increase in future insulin resistance in Japanese Americans. Diabetes 2008;57:12691275.
  • 19
    Maurovich-Horvat P, Massaro J, Fox CS et al. Comparison of anthropometric, area- and volume-based assessment of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue volumes using multi-detector computed tomography. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007;31:500506.
  • 20
    Irlbeck T, Massaro JM, Bamberg F et al. Association between single-slice measurements of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue with volumetric measurements: the Framingham Heart Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010; e-pub ahead of print 12 January 2010.
  • 21
    Stefan N, Kantartzis K, Machann J et al. Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:16091616.
  • 22
    Stefan N, Kantartzis K, Häring HU. Causes and metabolic consequences of Fatty liver. Endocr Rev 2008;29:939960.
  • 23
    Ellis KJ, Grund B, Visnegarwala F et al.; Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group. Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity measurements in adults: influence of measurement site. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:14411447.
  • 24
    Kuk JL, Church TS, Blair SN, Ross R. Does measurement site for visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue alter associations with the metabolic syndrome? Diabetes Care 2006;29:679684.
  • 25
    Kim NH, Kim DL, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS. Serum insulin, proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin ratio in type 2 diabetic patients: as an index of beta-cell function or insulin resistance. Korean J Intern Med 2000;15:195201.
  • 26
    Guo Z, Hensrud DD, Johnson CM, Jensen MD. Regional postprandial fatty acid metabolism in different obesity phenotypes. Diabetes 1999;48:15861592.
  • 27
    Kelley DE, Mokan M, Simoneau JA, Mandarino LJ. Interaction between glucose and free fatty acid metabolism in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest 1993;92:9198.
  • 28
    Boden G. Free fatty acids-the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Endocr Pract 2001;7:4451.
  • 29
    Lemieux I, Pascot A, Prud'homme D et al. Elevated C-reactive protein: another component of the atherothrombotic profile of abdominal obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:961967.
  • 30
    Hashimoto M, Akishita M, Eto M et al. The impairment of flow-mediated vasodilatation in obese men with visceral fat accumulation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:477484.
  • 31
    Kershaw EE, Flier JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:25482556.
  • 32
    Kwon K, Jung SH, Choi C, Park SH. Reciprocal association between visceral obesity and adiponectin: in healthy premenopausal women. Int J Cardiol 2005;101:385390.