• 1
    Adams T, Rini A. Predicting 1-year change in body mass index among college students. J Am Coll Health 2007;55: 361365.
  • 2
    Summerbell CD, Douthwaite W, Whittaker V et al. The association between diet and physical activity and subsequent excess weight gain and obesity assessed at 5 years of age or older: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33 (Suppl 3): S192.
  • 3
    Kahn HS, Tatham LM, Rodriguez C et al. Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. Am J Public Health 1997;87: 747754.
  • 4
    Schulz M, Kroke A, Liese AD et al. Food groups as predictors for short-term weight changes in men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. J Nutr 2002;132: 13351340.
  • 5
    Sánchez-Villegas A, Bes-Rastrollo M, Martínez-González MA, Serra-Majem L. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and weight gain in a follow-up study: the SUN cohort. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30: 350358.
  • 6
    Bes-Rastrollo M, Sánchez-Villegas A, Gómez-Gracia E et al. Predictors of weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Study 1. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83: 36270.
  • 7
    Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med 2011;364: 23922404.
  • 8
    Parker DR, Gonzalez S, Derby CA et al. Dietary factors in relation to weight change among men and women from two southeastern New England communities. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21: 103109.
  • 9
    Williams PT. Interactive effects of exercise, alcohol and vegetarian diet on coronary heart disease risk factors in 9,242 runners: the National Runners' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66: 11971206.
  • 10
    Williams PT. Exercise Attenuates the Association of Body Weight with Diet in 106,737 Runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; e-pub ahead of print 14 April 2011.
  • 11
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32: S498S504.
  • 12
    Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR et al.; American College of Sports Medicine; American Heart Association. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2007;116: 10811093.
  • 13
    Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN et al. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA 1995;273: 402407.
  • 14
    McMurray RG, Hackney AC. Interactions of metabolic hormones, adipose tissue and exercise. Sports Med 2005;35: 393412.
  • 15
    Eyler AA, Brownson RC, Bacak SJ, Housemann RA. The epidemiology of walking for physical activity in the United States. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35: 15291536.
  • 16
    Hamer M, Chida Y. Walking and primary prevention: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Br J Sports Med 2008;42: 238243.
  • 17
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). The National Academies Press: Washington DC, 2005, pp 880935 (ISBN: 0309085373).
  • 18
    2008 Physical activity guidelines for Americans. <>. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  • 19
    Erlichman J, Kerbey AL, James WP. Physical activity and its impact on health outcomes. Paper 2: Prevention of unhealthy weight gain and obesity by physical activity: an analysis of the evidence. Obes Rev 2002;3: 273287.
  • 20
    Williams PT. Nonlinear relationships between weekly walking distance and adiposity in 27,596 women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37: 18931901.
  • 21
    Williams PT. Association between walking distance and percentiles of body mass index in older and younger men. Br J Sports Med 2008;42: 352356.
  • 22
    Williams PT. Reduced diabetic, hypertensive, and cholesterol medication use with walking. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40: 433443.
  • 23
    Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA et al. Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69: 243249.
  • 24
    Williams PT. Vigorous exercise and the population distribution of body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28: 120128.
  • 25
    Chan CB, Spangler E, Valcour J, Tudor-Locke C. Cross-sectional relationship of pedometer-determined ambulatory activity to indicators of health. Obes Res 2003;11: 15631570.
  • 26
    Tudor-Locke C, Ainsworth BE, Whitt MC et al. The relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and body composition variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25: 15711578.
  • 27
    Williams PT. Dose-response relationship between walking and the attenuation of inherited weight. Prev Med 2011;52: 293299.
  • 28
    Zurlo F, Lillioja S, Puente Esposito-Del A et al. Low ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation as predictor of weight gain: study of 24-h RQ. Am J Physiol 1990;259: E650E657.
  • 29
    Marra M, Scalfi L, Contaldo F, Pasanisi F. Fasting respiratory quotient as a predictor of long-term weight changes in non-obese women. Ann Nutr Metab 2004;48: 189192.
  • 30
    Martins C, Robertson MD, Morgan LM. Effects of exercise and restrained eating behaviour on appetite control. Proc Nutr Soc 2008;67: 2841.
  • 31
    Miller WC, Koceja DM, Hamilton EJ. A meta-analysis of the past 25 years of weight loss research using diet, exercise or diet plus exercise intervention. Int J Obes 1997;21: 941947.
  • 32
    King NA, Tremblay A, Blundell JE. Effects of exercise on appetite control: implications for energy balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29: 10761089.
  • 33
    Williams PT. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity of faster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007;31: 652662.