High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released extracellularly upon cell necrosis acting as a mediator in tissue injury and inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms for the proinflammatory effect of HMGB1 are poorly understood. Here, we define a novel function of HMGB1 in promoting Mac-1-dependent neutrophil recruitment. HMGB1 administration induced rapid neutrophil recruitment in vivo. HMGB1-mediated recruitment was prevented in mice deficient in the β2-integrin Mac-1 but not in those deficient in LFA-1. As observed by bone marrow chimera experiments, Mac-1-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by HMGB1 required the presence of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on neutrophils but not on endothelial cells. In vitro, HMGB1 enhanced the interaction between Mac-1 and RAGE. Consistently, HMGB1 activated Mac-1 as well as Mac-1-mediated adhesive and migratory functions of neutrophils in a RAGE-dependent manner. Moreover, HMGB1-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB in neutrophils required both Mac-1 and RAGE. Together, a novel HMGB1-dependent pathway for inflammatory cell recruitment and activation that requires the functional interplay between Mac-1 and RAGE is described here.