Transgenesis procedures in Xenopus

Authors

  • Albert Chesneau,

    1. Laboratoire Evolution et Développement, Université Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex, France
    2. CNRS UMR 8080, F-91405 Orsay, France
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Laurent M. Sachs,

    1. Département Régulation, Développement et Diversité Moléculaire, MNHN USM 501, CNRS UMR 5166, CP32, 7 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France
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  • Norin Chai,

    1. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France
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  • Yonglong Chen,

    1. Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen, Zentrum Biochemie und Molekular Zellbiologie, Abteilung Entwicklungsbiochemie, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    2. Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Science City, 510663 Guangzhou, People's Republic of China
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  • Louis Du Pasquier,

    1. Institute of Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland
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  • Jana Loeber,

    1. Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen, Zentrum Biochemie und Molekular Zellbiologie, Abteilung Entwicklungsbiochemie, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
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  • Nicolas Pollet,

    1. Laboratoire Evolution et Développement, Université Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex, France
    2. CNRS UMR 8080, F-91405 Orsay, France
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  • Michael Reilly,

    1. Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, U.K.
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  • Daniel L. Weeks,

    1. Department of Biochemistry, Bowen Science Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, U.S.A.
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  • Odile J. Bronchain

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratoire Evolution et Développement, Université Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex, France
    2. CNRS UMR 8080, F-91405 Orsay, France
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(email Odile.Bronchain@u-psud.fr).

Abstract

Stable integration of foreign DNA into the frog genome has been the purpose of several studies aimed at generating transgenic animals or producing mutations of endogenous genes. Inserting DNA into a host genome can be achieved in a number of ways. In Xenopus, different strategies have been developed which exhibit specific molecular and technical features. Although several of these technologies were also applied in various model organizms, the attributes of each method have rarely been experimentally compared. Investigators are thus confronted with a difficult choice to discriminate which method would be best suited for their applications. To gain better understanding, a transgenesis workshop was organized by the X-omics consortium. Three procedures were assessed side-by-side, and the results obtained are used to illustrate this review. In addition, a number of reagents and tools have been set up for the purpose of gene expression and functional gene analyses. This not only improves the status of Xenopus as a powerful model for developmental studies, but also renders it suitable for sophisticated genetic approaches. Twenty years after the first reported transgenic Xenopus, we review the state of the art of transgenic research, focusing on the new perspectives in performing genetic studies in this species.

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