We analysed the distribution of histone H3 modifications in the nucleus of the vegetative cell (the vegetative nucleus) during pollen development in lily (Lilium longiflorum). Among the modifications specifically and/or abundantly present in the vegetative nucleus, dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and lysine 27 (H3K27me2) were found in heterochromatin, whereas trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) was localized in euchromatin in the vegetative nucleus. Such unique localization of the histone H3 methylation marks, particularly of H3K27me3, within a nucleus was not observed in lily nuclei other than the vegetative nucleus. The level of H3K27me3 increased in the euchromatic region of the vegetative nucleus during pollen maturation. The results suggest that H3K27me3 controls the gene expression of the vegetative cell during pollen maturation.