Increased accumulation of NT (3-nitrotyrosine) and PARylated [poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated] proteins in the tissues of diabetics are associated with diabetes complications (diabetes neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy). Red wine (its polyphenols are considered to be the main active components) can act as ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavengers, iron chelators and enzyme modulators. This study is novel in investigating the effect of red wine in preventing the accumulation of NT and PARylated proteins in the sciatic nerve, DRG (dorsal root ganglia), spinal cord, kidney and retina of diabetic animals. We have shown that during the experiment the body weight of control and diabetic groups of rats with consumption of red wine was significantly increased, by 52% and 19% accordingly. The significant increase in the content of NT in the sciatic nerve, DRG, spinal cord, kidney and retina, and PARylated proteins in the sciatic nerve, renal glomeruli and retinae of diabetic rats was partly or completely prevented by treatment with red wine. Red wine and its polyphenol preparations might be a promising option in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.