OP (octylphenol), an environmental oestrogen was administered, and differentially expressed proteins were analysed in mice testes to clarify its mechanism of action in male sterility. Male Kunming suckling mice (10 days old) were subcutaneously injected with OP at a dose of 10 μg/kg per day, 50 μg/kg per day and 100 μg/kg per day as low-, medium- and high-dose groups, respectively, for 35 days. Animals in the control group received subcutaneous injections of olive oil at a dose of 10 μl/mouse per day. Serum oestradiol, testosterone, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) levels were measured on day 45. The left testes were removed for tissue analysis, and the right testes were analysed for differentially expressed proteins by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MS. Tissue analysis showed that mice spermatogenesis was blocked at the round spermatid stage in the high-dose group, whereas no such changes were found in the medium- and low-dose groups. Higher serum oestradiol (P<0.05) and lower testosterone (P<0.05) levels were found in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in serum oestradiol and testosterone levels in the low-dose and control groups. No significant influence of OP was seen on serum FSH and LH levels in all OP-treated animals. The results from four differentially expressed proteins such as PPIA (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A), PEBP1 (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein1), TPI (triose-phosphate isomerase) and TCP-1 (T-complex protein 1) in the high-dose and control groups showed up-regulation of PPIA expression and down-regulation in PEBP1, TPI and TCP-1 expressions. These findings will contribute to clarify the mechanism of male sterility by environmental oestrogens.