Involvement of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) mediated by IL-1β (interleukin-1β) on cell proliferation and PSA (prostate-specific antigen) production of LNCaP prostate cell lines and the possible cross-talk with Akt (also known as protein kinase B) signalling pathway has been investigated. NF-κB and Akt were analysed by Western blotting from LNCaP cells treated by IL-1β before proliferation and PSA production were measured. IL-1β inhibited proliferation and decreased PSA production. The Akt pathway was not sensitive, whereas NF-κB phosphorylation occurred as a result of treatment. PSA production and proliferation of LNCaP cells were down-regulated by NF-κB mediated by IL-1β promoting anti-apoptotic signalling and co-suppressor factors of PSA expression. IL-1β through NF-κB activation provides a rationale for therapeutic approaches in the anticancer treatment of prostate.