• all-trans-retinoic acid;
  • embryoid body;
  • mouse embryonic stem cell;
  • primordial germ cell;
  • retinoic acid


atRA (all-trans-retinoic acid) is known to induce the differentiation of mESCs (mouse embryonic stem cells) into PGCs (primordial germ cells) in vitro. However, it is not clear as to what changes occur in PGC differentiation-associated genes or what mechanisms are involved when EBs (embryoid bodies) derived from mESCs are induced by atRA. EBs derived from mESCs were treated with 1, 2 or 5 μM atRA for 16 h, 2 days or 5 days. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the relative levels of PGC differentiation-associated genes (Lin28, Blimp1, Stra8 and Mvh) and the corresponding proteins respectively. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the protein location and distribution in EBs. The expression characteristics of genes could be divided into three categories: rapidly reached the peak value in 16 h and then decreased (Stra8, Lin28), initially low and then increased to reach the peak value in 5 days (Mvh) and relatively unchanged (Blimp1). A low level of Lin28 was expressed in EBs treated with atRA for 2 days or 5 days. The variation in the level of Lin28 mRNA did not influence the change in the level of Blimp1 mRNA. The changes in Stra8/Lin28 were consistent with the corresponding changes in the levels of their respective mRNAs, but the changes for Mvh/Blimp1 were not consistent with the corresponding changes in the levels of their respective mRNAs. Blimp1 expression may be independent of the effect of atRA on PGC differentiation. atRA may promote the start of a period in which there is a low level of Lin28 expression during PGC differentiation.