Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) are present in the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells where their functions remain incompletely resolved. They can bind various extracellular ligands, such as FSL-1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or palmitic acid (PA). We have investigated the link between PA, TLR2/4 and ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in C2C12 myotubes. Incubation with agonists of either TLR2 or TLR4, and with a high concentration of PA, increased S6K1 phosphorylation. Canonical upstream kinases of S6K1, protein kinase B (PKB) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), were regulated in the opposite way by PA, indicating that these kinases were probably not involved. By using the SB202190 inhibitor, p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) was found to be a key mediator of PA-induced phosphorylation of S6K1. Downregulation of either tlr2 or tlr4 gene expression by small interfering RNAs prevented the activation of both p38 MAPK and S6K1 by FSL-1, LPS or PA. Thus TLR2 and TLR4 agonists can increase the level of S6K1 phosphorylation in a p38 MAPK-dependent way in C2C12 myotubes. As PA induced the same intracellular signalling, a novel atypical pathway for PA is induced at the cellular membrane level and results in a higher phosphorylation state of S6K1.