Adp (adiponectin), an adipocyte-secreted hormone, exerts its effect via its specific receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 (adiponectin receptors 1 and 2), on insulin-sensitive cells in muscle, liver and adipose tissues, and plays an important role in lipid and glucose metabolisms. The study has investigated the effect of insulin on AdipoRs expression in muscle and fat cells. Differentiated fat [3T3-L1 (mouse adipocytes)], L6 (skeletal muscle) and vascular smooth muscle (PAC1) cells were serum starved and exposed to 100 nM insulin for 1–24 h. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs expression was monitored by real-time PCR. The results demonstrate that insulin down-regulates both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs levels in a biphasic manner in L6 and PAC1 cells. Insulin had little or no effect in the regulation of AdipoR1 expression in 3T3-L1 cells, but significantly up-regulated AdipoR2 mRNA level in a biphasic manner. The fact that insulin differentially regulates the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in muscle and fat cells suggests this is also dependent on the availability of the endogenous ligand, such as Adp for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in fat cells. The effects of globular Adp were also tested on insulin-regulated expression of AdipoRs in L6 cells, and found to up-regulate and counter insulin-mediated suppression of AdipoRs expression in L6 cells.