In addition to kallikrein hK3, a serine protease generally reported as PSA (prostate-specific antigen), at least two other enzymes in human seminal plasma also cleave synthetic peptidyl substrates derived from the sequence of human semenogelins. We have identified one of these as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), a major component of prostatic fluid whose physiological function is unclear. The other is a high Mr basic protein present at low concentrations in seminal plasma and that remains to be characterized. PAP was purified to homogeneity from freshly ejaculated seminal plasma. Its N-terminal sequence and its phosphatase properties (hydrolysis of para-nitrophenylphosphate at low pH) were determined, and its inhibition by sodium fluoride measured. Both purified and commercial PAP also had amidolytic activity on peptide substrates derived from the semenogelin sequence at neutral and slightly basic pH. The kcat/Km values were in the 102−103m−1·s−1 range using fluorogenic semenogelin-derived substrates whose peptidyl moiety included cleavage sites that had been identified ex␣vivo. PAP cleavage sites differed from those of hK3 and were mainly at P1 = Gln residues or between residues bearing hydroxyl groups. PAP amidolytic activity was poorly inhibited by all currently used wide spectrum proteinase inhibitors. Only 3–4 dichloroisocoumarin and benzamidine inhibited purified PAP. Purified human semenogelin was cleaved by purified and commercial PAP at neutral pH; the two main cleavage sites were at Tyr292 and Ser170 (semenogelin I sequence), only the former has been identified ex vivo by analysis of seminal plasma.