SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abrams, P.A. (1991) The fitness costs of senescence: the evolutionary importance of events in early adult life. Evolutionary Ecology, 5, 343360.
  • Alisauskas, R.T. & Ankney, C.D. (1987) Age-related variation in the nutrient reserves of breeding American Coots (Fulica americana). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 24172420.
  • Barber, C.A., Robertson, R.J. & Boag, P.T. (1996) The high frequency of extra-pair paternity in tree swallows is not an artifact of nestboxes. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 38, 425430.
  • Bell, G. & Koufopanou, V. (1986) The cost of reproduction. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 3 (eds R.Dawkins & M.Ridley), pp. 83131. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Blums, P., Hepp, G.R. & Mednis, A. (1997) Age-specific reproduction in three species of European ducks. Auk, 114, 737747.
  • Butler, R.W. (1988) Population dynamics and migration routes of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, in North America. Journal of Field Ornithology, 59, 395402.
  • Catterall, C.P., Kikkawa, J. & Gray, C. (1989) Inter-related age-dependent patterns of ecology and behaviour in a population of silvereyes (Aves: Zosteropidae). Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 557570.
  • Charlesworth, B. (1980) Evolution in Age-Structured Populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1984) Reproductive effort and terminal investment in iteroparous animals. American Naturalist, 123, 212229.
  • Cody, M.L. (1966) A general theory of clutch size. Evolution, 20, 174184.
  • Cooch, E., Lank, D., Robertson, R. & Cooke, F. (1997) Effects of parental age and environmental change on offspring sex ratio in a precocial bird. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 189202.
  • Coulson, J.C. & White, E. (1958) The effect of age on the breeding biology of the Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. Ibis, 100, 4051.
  • Curio, E. (1983) Why do young birds reproduce less well? Ibis, 125, 400404.
  • De Steven, D. (1978) The influence of age on the breeding biology of the tree swallow, Iridoprocne bicolor. Ibis, 120, 516523.
  • De Steven, D. (1980) Clutch size, breeding success, and parental survival in the tree swallow. Evolution, 34, 278291.
  • Desrochers, A. (1992a) Age and foraging success in European blackbirds: variation between and within individuals. Animal Behaviour, 43, 885894.
  • Desrochers, A. (1992b) Age-related differences in reproduction by European blackbirds: restraint or constraint? Ecology, 73, 11281131.
  • Dhondt, A.A. (1989) Blue tit. Lifetime Reproduction in Birds (ed. I.Newton), pp. 1534. Academic Press, London.
  • Dobson, F.S., Risch, T.S. & Murie, J.O. (1999) Increasing returns in the life history of Columbian ground squirrels. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 7386.
  • Dunn, P.O. & Robertson, R.J. (1992) Geographic variation in the importance of male parental care and mating systems in tree swallows. Behavioral Ecology, 3, 291299.
  • Dunn, P.O., Thusius, K.J., Kimber, K. & Winkler, D.W. (2000) Geographic and ecological variation in clutch size of tree swallows. Auk, 117, 215221.
  • Dunn, P.O., Whittingham, L.A., Lifjeld, J.T., Robertson, R.J. & Boag, P.T. (1994) Effects of breeding density, synchrony, and experience on extra-pair paternity in tree swallows. Behavioral Ecology, 5, 123129.
  • Flint, P.L. & Sedinger, J.S. (1992) Reproductive implications of egg-size variation in the Black Brant. Auk, 109, 896903.
  • Forslund, P. & Larsson, K. (1992) Age-related reproductive success in the barnacle goose. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61, 195204.
  • Grafen, A. (1988) On the uses of data on lifetime reproductive success. Reproductive Success (ed. T.H.Clutton-Brock), pp. 454471. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Green, W.C.H. (1990) Reproductive effort and associated costs in bison (Bison bison): do older mothers try harder? Behavioral Ecology, 1, 148160.
  • Gustafsson, L. (1989) Collared flycatcher. Lifetime Reproduction in Birds (ed. I.Newton), pp. 7588. Academic Press, London.
  • Gustafsson, L. & Pärt, T. (1990) Acceleration of senescence in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis by reproductive costs. Nature, 347, 279281.
  • Gustafsson, L. & Sutherland, W.J. (1988) The costs of reproduction in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Nature, 335, 813815.
  • Hamer, K.C. & Furness, R.W. (1991) Age-specific breeding performance and reproductive effort in Great Skuas Catharacta skua. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60, 693704.
  • Hannon, S.J. & Smith, J.N.M. (1984) Factors influencing age-related reproductive success in the Willow Ptarmigan. Auk, 101, 848854.
  • Harvey, P.H., Greenwood, P.J., Perrins, C.M. & Martin, A.R. (1979) Breeding success of great tits Parus major in relation to age of male and female parent. Ibis, 121, 216219.
  • Hasselquist, D., Wasson, M.F. & Winkler, D.W. (2001) Humoral immunocompetence correlates with date of egg-laying and reflects work load in female tree swallows. Behavioral Ecology, 12, 9397.
  • Hodder, V.M. (1963) Fecundity of Grand Bank haddock. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 20, 14651487.
  • Hussell, D.J.T. (1982) Longevity and fecundity records in the tree swallow. North American Bird Bander, 7, 154.
  • Hussell, D.J.T. (1983) Age and plumage color in female tree swallows. Journal of Field Ornithology, 54, 312318.
  • Hussell, D.J.T. & Quinney, T.E. (1987) Food abundance and clutch size of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor. Ibis, 129, 243258.
  • Kempenaers, B., Congdon, B., Boag, P. & Robertson, R.J. (1999) Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis? Behavioral Ecology, 10, 304311.
  • Komdeur, J. (1996a) Influence of age on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler. Behavioral Ecology, 7, 417425.
  • Komdeur, J. (1996b) Influence of helping and breeding experience on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler: a translocation experiment. Behavioral Ecology, 7, 326333.
  • Lack, D. (1968) Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds. Methuen, London.
  • Leffelaar, D. & Robertson, R.J. (1985) Nest usurpation and female competition for breeding opportunities by tree swallows. Wilson Bulletin, 97, 221224.
  • Leffelaar, D. & Robertson, R.J. (1986) Equality of feeding roles and the maintenance of monogamy in tree swallows. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 18, 199206.
  • Lifjeld, J.T., Dunn, P.O., Robertson, R.J. & Boag, P.T. (1993) Extra-pair paternity in monogamous tree swallows. Animal Behaviour, 45, 213229.
  • Lombardo, M.P. (1986) Attendants at Tree Swallow nests. I. Are attendants helpers at the nest? Condor, 88, 297303.
  • Lombardo, M.P. (1988) Evidence of intraspecific brood parasitism in the tree swallow. Wilson Bulletin, 100, 126128.
  • Lombardo, M.P., Bosman, R.M., Faro, C.A., Houtteman, S.G. & Kluisza, T.S. (1995) Effect of feathers as nest insulation on incubation behavior and reproductive performance of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Auk, 112, 973981.
  • Lozano, G.A. & Handford, P.T. (1995) A test of an assumption of delayed plumage maturation hypotheses using female tree swallows. Wilson Bulletin, 107, 153164.
  • Marchetti, K. & Price, T. (1989) Differences in the foraging of juvenile and adult birds: the importance of developmental constraints. Biological Reviews, 64, 5170.
  • Medawar, P.B. (1952) An Unsolved Problem in Biology. H.K. Lewis, London.
  • Møller, A.P. (1989) Viability costs of male tail ornaments in a swallow. Nature, 339, 132135.
  • Møller, A.P. (1994) Phenotype-dependent arrival time and its consequences in a migratory bird. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 35, 115122.
  • Møller, A.P. & De Lope, F. (1999) Senescence in a short-lived migratory bird: age-dependent morphology, migration, reproduction and parasitism. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 163171.
  • Murphy, M.T., Armbrecth, B., Vlamis, E. & Pierce, A. (2000) Is reproduction by tree swallows cost free? Auk, 117, 902912.
  • Newton, I. (1989) Lifetime Reproduction in Birds. Academic Press, London.
  • Newton, I. & Rothery, P. (1997) Senescence and reproductive value in sparrowhawks. Ecology, 78, 10001008.
  • Nol, E. & Smith, J.N.M. (1987) Effects of age and breeding experience on seasonal reproductive success in the song sparrow. Journal of Animal Ecology, 56, 301313.
  • Norris, K. & Evans, M.R. (2000) Ecological immunology: life history trade-offs and immune defense in birds. Behavioral Ecology, 11, 1926.
  • Nur, N. (1984) The consequences of brood size for breeding blue tits. I. Adult survival, weight change and cost of reproduction. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53, 479496.
  • Nur, N. (1988) The consequences of brood size for breeding blue tits. III. Measuring the cost of reproduction: survival, future fecundity, and differential dispersal. Evolution, 42, 351362.
  • Orians, G.H. (1969) Age and hunting success in the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). Animal Behaviour, 17, 316319.
  • Partridge, L. & Barton, N.H. (1993) Optimality, mutation and the evolution of ageing. Nature, 362, 305311.
  • Perdeck, A.C. & Cavé, A.J. (1992) Laying date in the coot: effects of age and mate choice. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61, 1319.
  • Perrins, C.M. (1970) The timing of birds’ breeding seasons. Ibis, 112, 242255.
  • Perrins, C.M. & McCleery, R.H. (1985) The effect of age and pair bond on the breeding success of great tits Parus major. Ibis, 127, 306315.
  • Perrins, C.M. & Moss, D. (1974) Survival of young great tits in relation to age of female parent. Ibis, 116, 220224.
  • Pianka, E.R. & Parker, W.S. (1975) Age-specific reproductive tactics. American Naturalist, 109, 453464.
  • Pyle, P., Spear, L.B., Sydeman, W.J. & Ainley, D.G. (1991) The effects of experience and age on the breeding performance of Western Gulls. Auk, 108, 2533.
  • Quinney, T.E. (1983) Tree swallows cross a polygyny threshold. Auk, 100, 750754.
  • Reid, W.V. (1988) Age-specific patterns of reproduction in the glaucous-winged gull: increased effort with age? Ecology, 69, 14541465.
  • Rendell, W.B. (1993) Intraspecific killing observed in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 107, 227228.
  • Rendell, W.B. (1999) Evolution of clutch size in tree swallows: trade-offs during reproduction, age-specific fecundity and survivorship. PhD Thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON.
  • Rendell, W.B. & Robertson, R.J. (1989) Nest-site characteristics, reproductive success and cavity availability for tree swallows breeding in natural cavities. Condor, 91, 875885.
  • Rendell, W.B. & Robertson, R.J. (1990) Influence of forest edge on nest site selection by tree swallows. Wilson Bulletin, 102, 634644.
  • Rendell, W.B. & Robertson, R.J. (1993) Cavity size, clutch-size and the breeding ecology of Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor. Ibis, 135, 305310.
  • Rendell, W.B. & Robertson, R.J. (1994) Cavity-entrance orientation and nest-site use by secondary hole-nesting birds. Journal of Field Ornithology, 65, 2735.
  • Richdale, L.E. (1955) Influence of age on size of eggs in yellow-eyed penguins. Ibis, 97, 266275.
  • Robertson, R.J. & Gibbs, H.L. (1982) Superterritoriality in tree swallows: a reexamination. Condor, 84, 313316.
  • Robertson, R.J. & Rendell, W.B. (1990) A comparison of the breeding ecology of a secondary cavity-nesting bird, the tree twallow (Tachycineta bicolor), in nest boxes and natural cavities. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68, 10461052.
  • Robertson, R.J. & Stutchbury, B.J. (1988) Experimental evidence for sexually selected infanticide in tree swallows. Animal Behaviour, 36, 749753.
  • Robertson, R.J., Stutchbury, B.J. & Cohen, R.R. (1992) Tree swallow. The Birds of North America No. 11 (eds A.Poole, P.Stettenheim & F.Gill). American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, DC and Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
  • Rockwell, R.F., Cooch, E.G., Thompson, C.B. & Cooke, F. (1993) Age and reproductive success in female lesser snow geese: experience, senescence and the cost of philopatry. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 323333.
  • Rooneem, T.M. & Robertson, R.J. (1997) The potential to lay replacement clutches by tree swallows. Condor, 99, 228231.
  • Rose, M.R. (1991) Evolutionary Biology of Ageing. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Rose, M.R. & Charlesworth, B. (1981a) Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Sib analysis of adult females. Genetics, 97, 173186.
  • Rose, M.R. & Charlesworth, B. (1981b) Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Exploratory selection experiments. Genetics, 97, 187196.
  • Røskaft, E., Espmark, Y. & Järvi, T. (1983) Reproductive effort and breeding success in relation to age by the Rook Corvus frugilegus. Ornis Scandinavica, 14, 169174.
  • Sæther, B.-E. (1990) Age-specific variation in reproductive performance in birds. Current Ornithology, Vol. 7 (ed. D.M.Power), pp. 251283. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Salthe, S.N. (1969) Reproductive modes and the number and sizes of ova in the urodeles. American Midland Naturalist, 81, 467490.
  • SAS (1997) JMP ® Statistics Made Visual™, v. 3.2.2. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
  • Simon, J.L. (1995) Resampling Stats: the New Statistics, v. 4.0. Resampling Stats, Inc. University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
  • Stearns, S.C. (1976) Life-history tactics: a review of the ideas. Quarterly Review of Biology, 51, 347.
  • Stearns, S.C. (1989) Trade-offs in life-history evolution. Functional Ecology, 3, 259268.
  • Sternberg, H. (1989) Pied flycatcher. Lifetime Reproduction in Birds (ed. I.Newton), pp. 5574. Academic Press, London.
  • Stutchbury, B.J. & Robertson, R.J. (1985) Floating populations of female tree swallows. Auk, 102, 651654.
  • Stutchbury, B.J. & Robertson, R.J. (1986) A simple trap for catching birds in nest boxes. Journal of Field Ornithology, 57, 6465.
  • Stutchbury, B.J. & Robertson, R.J. (1987a) Behavioural tactics of subadult female floaters in the tree swallow. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 20, 413419.
  • Stutchbury, B.J. & Robertson, R.J. (1987b) Two methods of sexing adult tree swallows before they begin breeding. Journal of Field Ornithology, 58, 236242.
  • Stutchbury, B.J. & Robertson, R.J. (1988) Within-season and age-related patterns of reproductive performance in female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66, 827834.
  • Tinkle, D.W. & Ballinger, R.E. (1972) Sceloporus undulatus: a study of the intraspecific comparative demography of a lizard. Ecology, 53, 570584.
  • Van Voorhies, W.A. (1992) Production of sperm reduces nematode lifespan. Nature, 360, 456458.
  • Welsh, A.H., Peterson, A.T. & Altmann, S.A. (1988) The fallacy of averages. American Naturalist, 132, 277288.
  • Wheelwright, N.T., Leary, J. & Fitzgerald, C. (1991) The costs of reproduction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 25402547.
  • Wheelwright, N.T. & Schultz, C.B. (1994) Age and reproduction in savannah sparrows and tree swallows. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 686702.
  • Whittingham, L.A., Dunn, P.O. & Robertson, R.J. (1993) Confidence of paternity and male parental care: an experimental study in tree swallows. Animal Behaviour, 46, 139147.
  • Wiggins, D.A. (1990) Clutch size, offspring quality, and female survival in tree swallows – an experiment. Condor, 92, 534537.
  • Williams, G.C. (1957) Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution, 11, 398411.
  • Williams, G.C. (1966a). Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Williams, G.C. (1966b) Natural selection, the costs of reproduction and a refinement of Lack’s principle. American Naturalist, 20, 687690.
  • Williams, J.B. (1988) Field metabolism of tree swallows during the breeding season. Auk, 105, 706714.
  • Winkler, D.W. & Allen, P.E. (1995) Effects of handicapping on female condition and reproduction in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Auk, 112, 737747.
  • Winkler, D.W. & Allen, P.E. (1996) The seasonal decline in Tree Swallow clutch size: physiological constraint or strategic adjustment? Ecology, 77, 922932.
  • Yezerinac, S.M., Weatherhead, P.J. & Boag, P.T. (1995) Extra-pair paternity and the opportunity for sexual selection in a socially monogamous bird (Dendroica petechia). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 37, 179188.
  • Zar, J.H. (1999) Biostatistical Analysis, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.