• Ascard, J. (1994) Dose–response models for flame weeding in relation to plant size and density. Weed Research, 34, 377385.
  • Begon, M. & Mortimer, A.M. (1986) Population Ecology: A Unified Study of Animals and Plants, 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Boutin, C., Freemark, K. & Keddy, C.J. (1995) Overview and rationale for developing regulatory guidelines for non target plant testing with chemical pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14, 14651475.
  • Boyle, T.P. & Fairchild, J.F. (1997) The role of mesocosm studies in ecological risk analysis. Ecological Applications, 7, 10991102.
  • Brain, P., Wilson, B.J., Wright, K.J., Seavers, G.P. & Caseley, J.C. (1999) Modelling the effect of crop and weed on herbicide efficacy in wheat. Weed Research, 39, 2135.
  • Christensen, S. (1994) Crop weed competition and herbicide performance in cereal varieties and species. Weed Research, 34, 2936.
  • Enfält, P., Enqvist, A., Bengtsson, P. & Alness, K. (1997) The influence of spray distribution and drop size on the dose–response of herbicides. Brighton Crop Protection Conference Proceedings – Weeds, Vol. 1 (ed. BCP, Council), pp. 381389. BCPC, London.
  • Firbank, L.G. & Watkinson, A.R. (1985) On the analysis of competition within two-species mixtures of plants. Journal of Applied Ecology, 22, 503517.
  • Firbank, L.G. & Watkinson, A.R. (1990) On the effects of competition: from monocultures to mixtures. Perspectives on Plant Competition (eds J.B.Grace & D.Tilman), pp. 165192. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Fletcher, J.S., Johnson, F.L. & McFarlane, J.C. (1990) Influence of greenhouse versus field testing and taxonomic differences on plant sensitivity to chemical treatment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 9, 769776.
  • Garrod, J.F. (1989) Comparative responses of laboratory and field grown test plants to herbicides. Aspects of Applied Biology, 21, 5162.
  • Goldberg, D.E. & Barton, A.M. (1992) Patterns and consequences of interspecific competition in natural communities: a review of field experiments with plants. American Naturalist, 139, 771801.
  • Haas, H. (1989) Danish experience in initiating and implementing a policy to reduce herbicide use. Plant Protection Quarterly, 4, 3844.
  • Hance, R.J. & Holly, K. (1990) Weed Control Handbook: Principles, 8th edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Humphry, R.W. (1999) Herbicide effects on a plant community and on monocultures of different densities. PhD Thesis. University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
  • Pratt, J.R., Melendez, A.E., Barreiro, R. & Bowers, N.J. (1997) Predicting the ecological effects of herbicides. Ecological Applications, 7, 11171124.
  • Royal Society of Chemistry Information Services (1991) The Agrochemicals Handbook, 3rd edn. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK.
  • Rydahl, P. & Thonke, K.E. (1993) PC-plant protection: optimizing chemical weed control. EPPO Bulletin, 23, 589594.
  • SAS Institute Inc. (1990) SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 6. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Seefeldt, S.S., Jensen, J.E. & Fuerst, E.P. (1995) Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose–response relationships. Weed Technology, 9, 218227.
  • Sharma, S.D. & Singh, M. (2001) Environmental factors affecting absorption and bio-efficacy of glyphosate in Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum). Crop Protection, 20, 511516.
  • Skuterud, R., Bjugstad, N., Tyldum, A. & Semb Tørresen, K. (1998) Effect of herbicides applied at different times of day. Crop Protection, 17, 4146.
  • Watkinson, A.R. (1981) Interference in pure and mixed populations of Agrostemma githago. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18, 967976.