SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aber, J.D., Magill, A., Boone, R., Melilo, J.M., Steudler, P., Bowden, R. (1993) Plant and soil responses to chronic nitrogen additions at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts. Ecological Applications, 3, 156166.
  • Aerts, R. (1999) Interspecific competition in natural plant communities: mechanisms, trade-offs and plant-soil feedbacks. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50, 2937.
  • Aerts, R. & Chapin, F.S. (2000) The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns. Advances in Ecological Research, 30, 168.
  • Ammann, M., Siegwolf, R., Pichlmayer, F., Suter, M., Saurer, M., Brunold, C. (1999) Estimating the uptake of traffic-derived NO2 from 15N abundance in Norway spruce needles. Oecologia, 118, 124131.
  • Archer, S. (1996) Assessing and interpreting grass-woody plant dynamics. The Ecology and Management of Grazing Systems (eds J.Hodgson & A.W.Illius), pp. 101134. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Archibold, O.W. & Wilson, M.R. (1980) The natural vegetation of Saskatchewan prior to agricultural settlement. Canadian Journal of Botany, 58, 20312042.
  • Bailey, A.W. & Wroe, R.A. (1974) Aspen invasion in a portion of the Alberta parklands. Journal of Range Management, 27, 263266.
  • Berendse, F. (1994) Litter decomposability – a neglected component of plant fitness. Journal of Ecology, 82, 187190.
  • Bert, D., Leavitt, S.W., Dupouey, J.-L. (1997) Variations of wood δ13C and water-use efficiency of Abies alba during the last century. Ecology, 78, 15881596.
  • Binkley, D. (1995) The influence of tree species on forest soils: processes and patterns. Proceedings of the Trees and Soil Workshop (eds D.J.Mead & I.S.Cornforth), pp. 133. Lincoln University Press, Canterbury, New Zealand.
  • Binkley, D. & Hart, S.C. (1989) The components of nitrogen availability assessments in forest soils. Advances in Soil Science, 10, 57112.
  • Blood, D.A. (1966) The Festuca scabrella association in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist, 80, 2432.
  • Bobbink, R., Hornung, M., Roelofs, J.G.M. (1998) The effects of air-borne nitrogen pollutants on species diversity in natural and semi-natural European vegetation. Journal of Ecology, 86, 717738.
  • Bork, E.W., Hudson, R.J., Bailey, A.W. (1997) Populus forest characterization in Elk Island National Park relative to herbivory, prescribed fire, and topography. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75, 15181526.
  • Brown, J.K. (1976) Estimating shrub biomass from basal stem diameters. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 6, 153158.
  • Buell, F.M. & Cantlon, J.E. (1951) A study of two forest stands in Minnesota with an interpretation of the prairie-forest margin. Ecology, 32, 294316.
  • Campbell, C., Campbell, I.D., Blyth, C.B., McAndrews, J.H. (1994) Bison extirpation may have caused aspen expansion in western Canada. Ecography, 17, 360362.
  • Carbyn, L.N. (1971) Description of the Festuca scabrella association in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan. Canadian Field Naturalist, 85, 2529.
  • Carreiro, M.M., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Repert, D.A., Parkhurst, D.F. (2000) Microbial enzyme shifts explain litter decay responses to simulated nitrogen deposition. Ecology, 81, 23592365.
  • Cheng, L. (1994) Concentration and Deposition of Anthropogenic Pollutants in Alberta. Report prepared for Alberta Department of Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Canada.
  • Coupland, R.T. (1950) Ecology of mixed prairie in Canada. Ecological Monographs, 20, 271315.
  • Davidson, C.I. & Wu, Y.-L. (1990) Dry deposition of particles and vapors. Acid Precipitation (Advances in Environmental Science), Volume 3. Sources, Deposition, and Canopy Interactions (eds S.E.Lindberg, A.L.Page & S.A.Norton), pp. 103216. Springer, New York, USA.
  • Dickson, J.R. (1909) The Riding Mountain Forest Reserve. Forestry Branch – Bulletin, 6. Department of the Interior, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • Environment Canada (1993) Canadian climate normals 1960–90 [V. 2] Prairie provinces. Atmospheric Environment Service, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Environment Canada (1997) 1995 National pollutant release inventory. http://www2.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri/1995/data.html.
  • Environment Canada (1998) 1995 criteria air contaminants emissions inventory summaries. National and provincial emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/cac/cacdoc/1995e/nox95.htm.
  • Gebauer, G. & Dietrich, P. (1993) Nitrogen isotope ratios in different compartments of a mixed stand of spruce, larch and beech trees and of understorey vegetation including fungi. Isotopenpraxis, 29, 3544.
  • Giblin, A.E., Laundre, J.A., Nadelhoffer, K.J., Shaver, G.R. (1994) Measuring nutrient availability in arctic soils using ion exchange resins: a field test. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58, 11541162.
  • Handley, L.L. & Raven, J.A. (1992) The use of natural abundance of nitrogen isotopes in plant physiology and ecology. Plant, Cell and Environment, 15, 965985.
  • Heaton, T.H.E. (1990) 15N/14N ratios of NOx from vehicle engines and coal-fired power stations. Tellus, 42B, 304307.
  • Hickman, M. & Schweger, C.E. (1996) The Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental history of a presently deep freshwater lake in east-central Alberta, Canada and paleoclimate implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 123, 161178.
  • Högberg, P. (1997) Tansley Review no. 95: 15N natural abundance in soil-plant systems. New Phytologist, 137, 179203.
  • Högbom, L. & Högberg, P. (1991) Nitrate nutrition of Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. in relation to nitrogen deposition in Sweden. Oecologia, 87, 488494.
  • Holland, W.D. & Coen, G.M. (1982) Ecological (Biophysical) Land Classification of Banff and Jasper National Parks. Publication SS-82–44, Alberta Institute of Pedology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • Johnson, D.W. & Lindberg, S.E. (1992) Atmospheric Deposition and Forest Nutrient Cycling. A Synthesis of the Integrated Forest Study. Ecological Studies, 91. Springer, New York, USA.
  • Kazada, M. & Katzensteiner, K. (1993) Factors influencing the soil solution chemistry in Norway spruce stands in the Bohemian Forest, Austria. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 47, 135145.
  • Kellman, M. & Carty, A. (1986) Magnitude of nutrient influxes from atmospheric sources to a Central American Pinus caribea woodland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23, 211226.
  • Kleb, H.R. & Wilson, S.D. (1997) Vegetation effects on soil resource heterogeneity in prairie and forest. American Naturalist, 150, 283298.
  • Köchy, M. (1999) Grass–tree interactions in western Canada. PhD thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Canada.
  • Köchy, M. & Wilson, S.D. (1997) Litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics in aspen forest and mixed-grass prairie. Ecology, 78, 732739.
  • Köchy, M. & Wilson, S.D. (2000) Competitive effects of shrubs and grasses in prairie. Oikos, 91, 385395.
  • Lindberg, S.E., Lovett, G.M., Richter, D.D., Johnson, D.W. (1986) Atmospheric deposition and canopy interactions of major ions in a forest. Science, 231, 141145.
  • Lorenzen, T.J. & Anderson, V.L. (1993) Design of Experiments: a No-Name Approach. Dekker, New York, USA.
  • Lovett, G.M. (1994) Atmospheric deposition of nutrients and pollutants in North America: an ecological perspective. Ecological Applications, 4, 629650.
  • Lovett, G.M. & Lindberg, S.E. (1993) Atmospheric deposition and canopy interactions of nitrogen in forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 16031616.
  • Lovett, G.M. & Rueth, H. (1999) Soil nitrogen transformations in beech and maple stands along a nitrogen deposition gradient. Ecological Applications, 9, 13301344.
  • Magill, A.H., Aber, J.D., Hendricks, J.J., Bowden, R.D., Melillo, J.M., Steudler, P.A. (1997) Biogeochemical response of forest ecosystems to simulated chronic nitrogen deposition. Ecological Applications, 7, 402415.
  • Maini, J.S. & Coupland, R.T. (1964) A simple technique for age determination in trembling aspen. Forestry Chronicle, 40, 219220.
  • McKone, M.J. & Lively, C.M. (1993) Statistical analysis of experiments conducted at multiple sites. Oikos, 67, 184186.
  • Morecroft, M.D., Sellers, E.K., Lee, J.A. (1994) An experimental investigation into the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on two semi-natural grasslands. Journal of Ecology, 82, 475483.
  • Myrick, R.H. & Hunt, K.M. (1998) Air Quality Monitoring in Alberta: 1996 Summary Report. Air Issues and Monitoring Branch, Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • NADP (1996) NADP/NTN Annual Data Summary. Precipitation Chemistry in the United States. 1995. Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory and State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
  • National Atlas of Canada (1974) National Atlas of Canada. MacMillan, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Petersen, E.B. & Petersen, N.M. (1992) Ecology, Management, and Use of Aspen and Balsam Poplar in the Prairie Provinces, Canada. Forestry Canada, Edmonton, Canada.
  • Potter, C.S., Ragsdale, H.L., Swank, W.T. (1991) Atmospheric deposition and foliar leaching in a regenerating southern Appalachian forest canopy. Journal of Ecology, 79, 97115.
  • Raup, H.M. (1935) Botanical Investigations in Wood Buffalo Park. National Museum of Canada, Biological Series, no. 20, Bulletin no. 74. Department of Mines, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • SAS Institute (1996) JMP 3.2. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA.
  • Schwarz, A.G. & Wein, R.W. (1997) Threatened dry grasslands in the continental boreal forests of Wood Buffalo National Park. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75, 13631370.
  • Shachak, M. & Lovett, G.M. (1998) Atmospheric deposition to a desert ecosystem and its implications for management. Ecological Applications, 8, 455463.
  • Taylor, B.R., Parkinson, D., Parsons, W.F.J. (1989) Nitrogen and lignin as predictors of litter decay rates: a microcosm test. Ecology, 70, 97104.
  • Tilman, D. (1987) Secondary succession and the pattern of plant dominance along experimental nitrogen gradients. Ecological Monographs, 57, 189214.
  • Vitousek, P.M., Aber, J.D., Howarth, R.W, Likens G.E., Matson, P.A., Schindler, D.W., Schlesinger, W.H., Tilman, D.G. (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecological Applications, 7, 737750.
  • Walter, H. & Lieth, H. (1967) Klimadiagramm-Weltatlas. Fischer, Jena, Germany.
  • Wilson, S.D. (1998) Competition between grasses and woody plants. Population Ecology of Grasses (ed. G.P.Cheplick), pp. 231254. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Wilson, S.D. & Tilman, D. (1991) Components of plant competition along an experimental gradient of nitrogen availability. Ecology, 72, 10501065.