SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aas, B. (1970) Noen bemerkelsesverdig høye vekstgrenser for varmekjære trær og urter i Seljord. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 24, 2336.
  • Alexandersson, H. & Eriksson, B. (1989) Climate fluctuations in Sweden 1860–1987. SMHI, Reports Meteorology and Climatology, 58, 154.
  • Baker, W.L. & Weisberg, P.J. (1995) Landscape analysis of the forest–tundra ecotone in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Professional Geographer, 47, 361375.
  • Barry, R.G. & Chorley, R.J. (1992) Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Routledge, London.
  • Barry, R.G., Fallot, J.-M. & Armstrong, R.L. (1995) Twentieth-century variability in snow-cover conditions and approaches to detecting and monitoring changes: status and prospects. Progress in Physical Geography, 19, 520532.
  • Beerling, D.J. & Woodward, F.I. (1994) Climate change and the British scene. Journal of Ecology, 82, 391397.
  • Boer, M.M., Koster, E.A. & Lundberg, H. (1990) Greenhouse impact in Fennoscandia – preliminary findings of a European workshop on the effects of climatic change. Ambio, 19, 210.
  • Bradley, R.S. & Miller, G. (1972) Recent climatic change and increased glacierization in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Nature, 237, 385387.
  • Callaghan, T.V. & Jonasson, S. (1995) Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and environmental change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 352, 259276.
  • Chapin, F.S. & Starfield, A.M. (1997) Time lags and novel ecosystems in response to transient climatic change in Alaska. Climatic Change, 35, 449462.
  • Conway, D. (1998) Recent climate variability and future climate change scenarios for Great Britain. Progress in Physical Geography, 22, 350374.
  • Cooper, D.J. (1986) White spruce above and beyond treeline in the Arrigetch Peaks region, Brooks Range, Alaska. Arctic, 39, 247252.
  • Crawford, R.M.M. (1997) Oceanicity and the ecological disadvantages of warm winters. Botanical Journal of Scotland, 49, 205221.
  • Davis, M.B. (1986) Climatic instability, time lags and community disequilibrium. Community Ecology (eds J.Diamond & T. J.Case), pp. 269284. Harper & Row, New York.
  • Davis, M.B. (1989) Insights from paleoecology on global change. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 70, 222228.
  • Easterling, D.R., Meehl, G.A., Parmesan, C., Changnon, S.A., Karl, T.R. & Mearns, L.O. (2000) Climate extremes: observations, modelling, and impacts. Science, 289, 20682074.
  • Erkamo, V. (1956) Untersuchungen über die pflanzenbiologischen und einige andere Folgeerscheinungen der neuzeitlichen Klimaschwankung in Finnland. Annales Botanici Societas Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae ‘Vanamo’, 28, 1283.
  • Grabherr, G., Gottfried, M. & Pauli, H. (1994) Climate effects on mountain plants. Nature, 369, 448.
  • Grace, J. (1997) The oceanic tree-line and the limit for tree growth in Scotland. Botanical Journal of Scotland, 49, 223236.
  • Graumlich, L. (1994) Long-term vegetation change in mountain environments. Mountain Environments in Changing Climates (ed. M.Beniston), pp. 167179. Routledge, London.
  • Grove, J.M. (1988) The Little Ice Age. Methuen, London.
  • Haeberli, W. & Beniston, M. (1998) Climate change and its impacts on glaciers and permafrost in the Alps. Ambio, 27, 258265.
  • Hättenschwiler, S. & Smith, W.K. (1999) Seedling occurrence in alpine treeline conifers: a case study from central Rocky Mountains, USA. Acta Oecologia, 20, 219224.
  • Hessl, A.E. & Baker, W.L. (1997) Spruce-fir growth form changes in the forest–tundra ecotone of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecography, 20, 356367.
  • Hofgaard, A. (1997) Inter-relationships between treeline position, species diversity, land use and climate change in the central Scandes Mountains of Norway. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 6, 357368.
  • Högbom, A.G. (1897) Några anmärkningar om de isdämda sjöarna i Jemtland. GFF, 19, 311326.
  • Holten, J.I. & Carey, P.D. (1992) Responses of climate change on natural terrestrial ecosystems in Norway. NINA Forskningsrapport, 29, 159.
  • Holtmeier, F.-K. (1995) Waldgrenzen und Klimaschwankungen. Ökologische Aspekte eines vieldiskutierten Phänomens. Geoökodynamik, 16, 124.
  • Houghton, J.R., Meira Filho, L.G., Callander, B.A., Harris, N., Kattenberg, A. & Maskell, K., eds (1996) Climate Change 1995. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Ingólfsson, Ó. & Hjort, C. (1992) What can the last ice age tell us about the next? GFF, 114, 372374.
  • Jacoby, G.C. & D’Arrigo, R.D. (1995) Indicators of climatic and biospheric change: evidence from tree rings. Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System (eds G. M.Woodwell & F. T.Mackenzie), pp. 108118. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Jones, P.D., New, M., Parker, D.E., Martin, S. & Rigor, I.G. (1999) Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years. Reviews of Geophysics, 37, 173199.
  • Jónsdóttir, I.S., Callaghan, T.V. & Headley, A.D. (1996) Resource dynamics within arctic clonal plants. Ecological Bulletins, 45, 5364.
  • Kilander, S. (1955) Kärlväxternas övre gränser på fjäll i sydvästra Jämtland samt angränsande delar av Härjedalen. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 35, 198.
  • Körner, C. (1999) Alpine Plant Life. Functional Plant Ecology and High Mountain Ecosystems. Springer, Berlin.
  • Kullman, L. (1979) Change and stability in the altitude of the birch tree-limit in the southern Swedish Scandes 1915–75. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 65, 1121.
  • Kullman, L. (1984) Germinability of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa) along two altitudinal transects downslope from the tree-limit. Reports from the Kevo Subarctic Research Station, 19, 1118.
  • Kullman, L. (1986a) Recent tree-limit history of Picea abies. the southern Swedish Scandes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 16, 761771.
  • Kullman, L. (1986b) Demography of Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa sown in contrasting habitats close to the birch tree-limit in Central Sweden. Vegetatio, 65, 1320.
  • Kullman, L. (1993a) Tree-limit dynamics of Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa. relation to climate variability: evidence from central Sweden. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 765772.
  • Kullman, L. (1993b) Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree-limit surveillance during recent decades, Central Sweden. Arctic and Alpine Research, 25, 2431.
  • Kullman, L. (1996) Rise and demise of cold-climate Picea abies forest in Sweden. New Phytologist, 134, 243256.
  • Kullman, L. (1997) Tree-limit stress and disturbance. A 25-year survey of geoecological change in the Scandes Mountains of Sweden. Geografiska Annaler, 79A, 139165.
  • Kullman, L. (1998a) The occurrence of thermophilous trees in the Scandes Mountains during the early Holocene: evidence for a diverse tree flora from macroscopic remains. Journal of Ecology, 86, 421428.
  • Kullman, L. (1998b) Non-analogous tree flora in the Scandes Mountains, Sweden, during the early Holocene – macrofossil evidence of rapid geographic spread and response to palaeoclimate. Boreas, 27, 153161.
  • Kullman, L. (2000a) Tree-limit rise and recent warming: a geoecological case study from the Swedish Scandes. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 54, 4959.
  • Kullman, L. (2000b) The geoecological history of Picea abies in northern Sweden and adjacent parts of Norway. A contrarian hypothesis of postglacial tree immigration patterns. GEOÖKO, 21, 141173.
  • Kullman, L. (2000c) Warmer climate and tree-limit rise in the Swedish Scandes. Fauna och Flora, 95, 113129. (In Swedish with English summary).
  • Kullman, L. (2001a) 20th-century climate warming and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden. Ambio, 30, 7280.
  • Kullman, L. (2001b) A new approach to postglacial forest-history of northern Scandinavia. Review of megafossil and macrofossil evidence. Recent Research Developments in Ecology, 1, 119.
  • Kullman, L. & Kjällgren, L. (2000) A coherent postglacial tree-limit chronology (Pinus sylvestris L.) for the Swedish Scandes: Aspects of paleoclimate and ‘recent warming’, based on megafossil evidence. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 32, 419428.
  • Kupfer, J.A. & Cairns, D.M. (1996) The suitability of montane ecotones as indicators of global climatic change. Progress in Physical Geography, 20, 253272.
  • Luckman, B.H. & Kavanagh, T. (2000) Impact of climate fluctuations on mountain environments in the Canadian Rockies. Ambio, 29, 371380.
  • MacDonald, G.M., Edwards, T.W.D., Moser, K.A., Pienitz, R. & Smol, J.P. (1993) Rapid response of treeline vegetation and lakes to past climate warming. Nature, 361, 243246.
  • Magnuson, J.J., Robertson, D.M., Benson, B.J., Wynne, R.H., Livingstone, D.M., Arai, T., Assel, R.A., Barry, R.G., Card, V., Kuusisto, E., Granin, N.G., Prowse, T.D., Stewart, K.M. & Vuglinski, V.S. (2000) Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science, 289, 17431746.
  • Mann, M.E., Bradley, R.S. & Hughes, M.K. (1999) Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 759762.
  • Moberg, A. & Alexandersson, H. (1997) Homogenization of Swedish temperature data. Part II: Homogenized gridded air temperature compared with a subset of global gridded air temperature since 1861. International Journal of Climatology, 17, 3554.
  • Molau, U. & Larsson, E.-L. (2000) Seed rain and seed bank along an alpine altitudinal gradient in Swedish Lapland. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78, 728747.
  • Parmesan, C., Root, T.L. & Willig, M.R. (2000) Impacts of extreme weather and climate on terrestrial biota. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 81, 443450.
  • Payette, S. & Lavoie, C. (1994) The arctic tree line as a record of past and recent climatic changes. Environmental Review, 2, 7890.
  • Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L. & Campbell, J.H. (2000) Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature, 398, 611614.
  • Rapp, A. (1996) Photo documentation of landscape change in northern Swedish mountains. Ecological Bulletins, 45, 170179.
  • Rochefort, R.M., Little, R.L., Woodward, A. & Peterson, D.L. (1994) Changes in sub-alpine tree-distribution in western North America: a review of climatic and other causal factors. Holocene, 4, 89100.
  • Schönwiese, C.-D. & Rapp, J. (1997) Climate Trend Atlas of Europe Based on Observations 1891–1990. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
  • Shiyatov, S.G. (1993) The upper timberline dynamics during the last 1100 years in the Polar Ural Mountains. Palaeoclimate Research, 9, 195203.
  • Sveinbjörnsson, B., Kauhanen, H. & Nordell, O. (1996) Treeline ecology of mountain birch in the Torneträsk area. Ecological Bulletins, 45, 6570.
  • Sykes, M. (2001) Modelling the potential distribution and community dynamics of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.) in Scandinavia. Forest Ecology and Management, 14, 6984.
  • Theurillat, J.-P., Felber, F., Geissler, P., Gobat, J.-M., Fierz, M., Fischlin, A. et al. (1998) Sensitivity of plant and oil ecosystems of the Alps to climate change. Views from the Alps. Regional Perspectives on Climate Change (eds P.Cebon, U.Dahinden, H. C.Davies, D.Imboden & C. C.Jaeger), pp. 225308. MIT Press, London.
  • Velichko, A.A., Borisova, O.K., Zelikson, E.M., Faure, H., Adams, J.M., Branchu, P. et al. (1993) Greenhouse warming and the Eurasian biota: are there lessons from the past? Global and Planetary Change, 7, 5167.
  • Weih, M. & Karlsson, S. (1999) The nitrogen economy of mountain birch seedlings: implications for winter survival. Journal of Ecology, 87, 211219.
  • Woodward, F.I. (1993) The lowland-to-upland transition – modelling plant responses to environmental change. Ecological Applications, 3, 404408.
  • Woodward, A., Schreiner, E.G. & Silsbee, D.G. (1995) Climate, geography, and tree establishment in subalpine meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 27, 217225.