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Clinical & Experimental Allergy

Coincidence of immune-mediated diseases driven by Th1 and Th 2 subsets suggests a common aetiology. A population-based study using computerized General Practice data

Authors

  • C. R. Simpson,

    Corresponding author
    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
      Mr C. R. Simpson, Department of General Practice & Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Westburn Road, AB25 2AY, UK. E-mail: c.simp@abdn.ac.uk
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    • These two authors made equal contributions.

  • W. J. A. Anderson,

    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
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    • These two authors made equal contributions.

  • P. J. Helms,

    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
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  • M. W. Taylor,

    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
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  • L. Watson,

    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
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  • G. J. Prescott,

    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
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  • D. J. Godden,

    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
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  • R. N. Barker

    1. *Department of Child Health, ‡Department of Thoracic Medicine, §Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, ¶Department of Public Health, Grampian Health Board, **Department of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ††Highlands and Islands Health Research Institute, Inverness and ‡‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
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Mr C. R. Simpson, Department of General Practice & Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Westburn Road, AB25 2AY, UK. E-mail: c.simp@abdn.ac.uk

Abstract

Background The recent rise in the prevalence of immune-mediated diseases has been attributed to environmental factors such as a lack of microbial challenge, or dietary change, that deviate the overall balance between mutually antagonistic subsets of T helper (Th) cells.

Objective An alternative proposal is that recent environmental changes have resulted in an immune system that is more likely to produce both Th1 and Th 2 responses against benign antigens. The prediction of this hypothesis, that Th1 and Th 2-mediated diseases are not mutually exclusive, and may be positively associated, is tested here in a whole population.

Methods Data from General Practices participating in the Scottish Continuous Morbidity Recording (CMR) project were used to determine the coincidence of the major Th 2-mediated atopic diseases; asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis, with the Th1-mediated autoimmune conditions; type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. We also identified the prescription rates of inhaled therapy for asthma in patients with Th1-mediated disease.

Results There was a significant increase in the risk of presenting with a Th1-mediated autoimmune condition in patients with a history of allergic disease (standardized prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.28 (1.18–1.37)). Likewise, the standardized prevalence ratios of presenting with either eczema (1.67 (1.48–1.87)) or allergic rhinitis (1.22 (1.02–1.44)) were significantly increased in subjects with a history of Th1-mediated disease. There was a particularly strong association between current psoriasis and current eczema (standardized prevalence ratio of psoriasis in subjects with eczema 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38–3.45). There was also a significant increase in prescriptions for inhaled asthma therapy in patients with Th1 disease.

Conclusion It is concluded that Th1- and Th 2-mediated diseases are significantly associated in a large General Practice population. This finding supports the proposal that autoimmune and atopic diseases share risk factors that increase the propensity of the immune system to generate both Th1- and Th 2-mediated inappropriate responses to non-pathological antigens.

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