SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Barton CVM, Jarvis PG. 1999. Growth response of branches of Picea sitchensis to four years exposure to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. New Phytologist 144: 233243.
  • Batschelet E. 1981. Circular statistics in biology. London, UK: Academic Press.
  • Bozzuto LM, Wilson BF. 1988. Branch angle in red maple trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 643646.
  • Brazier JD. 1977. The effect of forest practices on the quality of the harvested crop. Forestry 50: 4966.
  • Brown CM, McAlpine RG, Kormanik PP. 1967. Apical dominance and form in woody plants: a reappraisal. American Journal of Botany 54: 153162.
  • Burk TE, Nelson ND, Isebrands JG. 1983. Crown architecture of short-rotation, intensively cultured Populus. III. A model of first-order branch architecture. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13: 11071116.
  • Calfapietra C, Gielen B, Sabatti M, De Angelis P, Scarascia-Mugnozza G, Ceulemans R. 2001. Growth performance of Populus during the first growing season in the POPFACE experiment. Annals of Forest Science 58: 819828.
  • Centritto M. 2000. Source-sink relations affect growth but not the allocation pattern of birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings under elevated [CO2]. Plant Biosystem 134: 3137.
  • Ceulemans R, Jiang XN, Shao BY. 1995. Growth and physiology of one-year old poplar (Populus) under elevated atmospheric CO2 levels. Annals of Botany 75: 609617.
  • Ceulemans R, Stettler RF, Hinckley TM, Isebrands JG, Heilman PE. 1990. Crown architecture of Populus clones as determined by branch orientation and branch characteristics. Tree Physiology 7: 157167.
  • Cluzeau C, Le Goff N, Ottorini J-M. 1994. Development of primary branches and crown profile of Fraxinus excelsior. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 23152323.
  • Deleuze C, Hervé J-C, Colin F, Ribeyrolles L. 1996. Modelling crown shape of Picea abies: spacing effects. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 19571965.
  • Diaz S. 1995. Elevated CO2 responsiveness, interactions at the community level and plant functional types. Journal of Biogeography 22: 289295.
  • Dickmann DI. 1985. The ideotype concept applied to forest trees. In: CannellMGR, JacksonJE, eds. Attributes of trees as crop plants. Huntingdon, UK: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 89101.
  • Fisher JB. 1986. Branching patterns and angles in trees. In: GivnishTJ, ed. On the economy of plant form and function. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 493523.
  • Ford ED. 1985. Branching, crown structure and the control of timber production. In: CannellMGR, JacksonJE, eds. Attributes of trees as crop plants. Huntingdon, UK: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 229252.
  • Gielen B, Calfapietra C, Sabatti M, Ceulemans R. 2001. Leaf area dynamics in a closed poplar plantation under free-air carbon dioxide enrichment. Tree Physiology 21: 12451255.
  • Goulet J, Messier C, Nikinmaa E. 2000. Effect of branch position and light availability on shoot growth of understory sugar maple and yellow birch saplings. Canadian Journal of Botany 78: 10771085.
  • Hallé F, Oldeman RA, Tomlinson PB. 1978. Tropical trees and forests. An architectural analysis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Hättenschwiler S, Körner S. 1998. Biomass allocation and canopy development in spruce model ecosystems under elevated CO2 and increased N deposition. Oecologia 113: 104114.
  • Hättenschwiler S, Körner C. 2000. Tree seedling responses to in situ CO2-enrichment differ among species and depend on understorey light availability. Global Change Biology 6: 213226.
  • Hendrey GR, Ellsworth DS, Lewin KF, Nagy J. 1999. A free-air enrichment system for exposing tall forest vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology 5: 293309.
  • Hendrey GR, Lewin KF, Nagy J. 1993. Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment: development, progress, results. Vegetatio 104/105: 1731.
  • Hinckley TM, Braatne J, Ceulemans R, Clum P, Dunlap J, Newman D, Smit B, Scarascia-Mugnozza G, Van Volkenburgh E. 1992. 1. Growth dynamics and canopy structure. In: MitchellCP, Ford-RobertsonJB, HinckleyTM, Sennerby-ForsseL, eds. Ecophysiology of short rotation forest crops. London, UK: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, 134.
  • Idso SB, Kimball BA, Allen SG. 1991. CO2 enrichment of sour orange trees: 2.5 years into a long-term experiment. Plant, Cell & Environment 14: 351353.
  • Isebrands JG, Nelson ND. 1982. Crown architecture of short-rotation, intensively cultured Populus. II. Branch morphology and distribution of leaves within the crown of Populus‘Tristis’ as related to biomass production. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12: 853864.
  • Jach ME, Ceulemans R. 1999. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on phenology, growth and crown structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings after two years of exposure in the field. Tree Physiology 19: 289300.
  • Kellomäki S. 1986. A model for the relationship between branch number and biomass in Pinus sylvestris crowns and the effect of crown shape and stand density on branch and stem biomass. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 1: 455472.
  • Kockelbergh F, Assissi B. 2000. An inclinometer: a low cost tool for fast and reliable measurements of leaf and branch angles. In: CeulemansR, BogaertJ, DeckmynG, NijsI, eds. Topics in ecology: structure and function in plants and ecosystems. Wilrijk, Belgium: University of Antwerp, UIA, 4048.
  • Kubiske ME, Pregitzer KS, Mikan CJ, Zak DR, Maziasz JL, Teeri JA. 1997. Populus tremuloides photosynthesis and crown architecture in response to elevated CO2 an soil N availability. Oecologia 110: 328336.
  • Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD. 1996. SAS system for mixed models. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.
  • Mäkinen H. 1996. Effect of intertree competition on branch characteristics of Pinus sylvestris families. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 11: 129136.
  • Martin CA, Stutz JC, Kimball BA, Idso SB, Akey DH. 1995. Growth and topological changes of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. ‘Eureka’ in response to high temperatures and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 120: 10251031.
  • Miglietta F, Peressotti A, Primo Vaccari F, Zaldei A, De Angelis P, Scarascia-Mugnozza G. 2001. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) of a poplar plantation: the POPFACE fumigation system. New Phytologist 150: 465476.
  • Mitchell CP, Stevens EA, Watters MP. 1999. Short-rotation forestry-operations, productivity and costs based on experience gained in the UK. Forest Ecology and Management 121: 123136.
  • Nelson ND, Burk T, Isebrands JG. 1981. Crown architecture of short-rotation, intensively cultured Populus. I. Effects of clone and spacing on first-order branch characteristics. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 11: 7381.
  • Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R. 1999. Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 683714.
  • Polk RB. 1974. Heritabilities of some first-order branching traits in Pinus banksiana Lamb. Proceedings of the Eighth Central States Forest Tree Improvement Conference. Columbia, Mo, USA: University of Missouri, 3339.
  • Pritchard SG, Rogers HH, Prior SA, Peterson CM. 1999. Elevated CO2 and plant structure: a review. Global Change Biology 5: 807837.
  • Radoglou KM, Jarvis PG. 1990. Effects of CO2 enrichment on four poplar clones. I. Growth and leaf anatomy. Annals of Botany 65: 617626.
  • Reekie EG, Bazzaz FA. 1989. Competition and patterns of resource use among seedlings of five tropical trees grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Oecologia 79: 212222.
  • Remphrey WR, Powell GR. 1985. Crown architecture of Larix laricina saplings: sylleptic branching on the main stem. Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 12961302.
  • Scarascia-Mugnozza G, De Angelis P, Sabatti M, Calfapietra C, Ceulemans R, Peressotti A, Miglietta F. 2000. A FACE experiment on short rotation, intensive poplar plantation: objective and experimental set up of POPFACE. In: SuttonMA, MorenoJM, Van Der PuttenWH, StruweS, eds. Terrestrial ecosystem research in europe: successes, challenges and policy. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 136140.
  • Sionit N, Strain BR, Hellmers H, Riechers GH, Jaeger CH. 1985. Long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment affects the growth and development of Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15: 468471.
  • St. Clair JB. 1994. Genetic variation in tree structure and its relation to size in Douglas-fir. II. Crown form, branch characters, and foliage characters. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 12361247.
  • Ward JK, Strain BR. 1999. Elevated CO2 studies: past, present and future. Tree Physiology 19: 211220.
  • Wilkins D, Van Oosten J-J, Besford RT. 1994. Effects of elevated CO2 on growth and chloroplast proteins in Prunus avium. Tree Physiology 14: 769779.
  • Wilson BF. 2000. Apical control of branch growth and angle in woody plants. American Journal of Botany 87: 601607.