Some samples of the An. funestus sensu lato showed high degrees of exophily, exophagy and zoophily, suggesting that they were probably not An. funestus Giles sensu stricto, which is very endophilic, endophagic and anthropophilic, whereas other members of the An. funestus group are not (c.f. Gillies & DeMeillon, 1968; Gillies & Coetzee, 1987). In Kisangasangeni and perhaps Mvuleni, some samples of An. funestus s.l. were sufficiently endophilic and anthropophilic to be regarded as An. funestus s.s., but we lacked the technical capability to confirm this by PCR. Therefore, we assessed results for all females of the An. funestus group collectively, without distinction between the sibling species.
Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania
Version of Record online: 4 APR 2002
Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Volume 16, Issue 1, pages 28–38, March 2002
How to Cite
Ijumba, J. N., Mosha, F. W. and Lindsay, S. W. (2002), Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 16: 28–38. doi: 10.1046/j.0269-283x.2002.00337.x
- Issue online: 4 APR 2002
- Version of Record online: 4 APR 2002
- 1972) Crop Production in Dry Regions. Leonard Hill, London. (
- 1988) The Epidemiology of Ricefield-Associated Diseases. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in collaboration with WHO/FAO/UNEP Panel of Experts on Environmental Mangement for Vector Control (PEEM). World Health Organization, Geneva. (
- 1981) Identification of mosquito blood meals by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 30, 1336–1341. , & (
- 1968) Crosomi politenici dele cellule nutrici ovariche nel complesso gambiae del genre Anopheles. Parassitologia, 10, 179–183. (
- 1984) Heterogeneities of the vectorial malaria system in tropical Africa and their significance in malaria epidemiology and control. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 62 (Suppl.), 107–113. (
- 1985) Epidemiologie du paludisme dans la plaine de la Ruzizi, Burundi. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale, 64, 35–158. , , , & (
- 1986) Development and Spread of High-Yielding Rice Varieties in Developing Countries. Bureau of Science and Technology, United States Agency for International Development, Washington D.C. (
- 2001) Zoophily of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae in Madagascar demonstrated by odour-baited entry traps. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 15, 50–57.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2915.2001.00276.x , , , , & (
- FAO (1987) Consultation on Irrigation in Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
- FAO (1996) Production Yearbook. 1995. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
- 1969) Malaria vectorial capacity of a population of Anopheles gambiae. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 40, 531–545. & (
- 1987) A Supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Afrotropical Region). South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg. & (
- 1968) The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region). The South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg. & (
- 1993) Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates at the Ahero irrigation scheme and the Miwani sugar-belt in western Kenya. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 87, 379–391. , , , & (
- 1988) The impact of rice production on vector-borne disease problems in developing countries. Vector-Borne Disease Control in Humans through Rice Agroecosystems Management. Proceedings of the Workshop on Research and Training Needs in the Field of Integrated Vector-Borne Disease Control in Riceland Agroecosystems of Developing Countries, 9–14 March 1987. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in collaboration with WHO/FAO/UNEP Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control (PEEM), IRRI, Manila, The Philippines. (
- 1972) Cytological maps for the practical identification of the females of the three fresh water species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 66, 143–147. (
- 1986) Rice. Longman, London. (
- 1954) Biology of Anopheles gambiae. World Health Organisation, Geneva. (
- 1993) Parasitic Diseases in Water Resources Development. The Need for Intersectoral Negotiation. World Health Organization, Geneva. , , , & (
- 1997) The impact of rice and sugarcane irrigation on malaria transmission in the Lower Moshi area in northern Tanzania. PhD Thesis, Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen. (
- 2001) Impact of irrigation on malaria in Africa: paddies paradox. Medical and Veterinary Entolmology, 15, 1–11. & (
- 2002) Irrigated crop production associated with less malaria than traditional agricultural practices in Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, in press. , , , & (
- 1993) Rice in Human Nutrition. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, Manila) and Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. (
- 1992) The effect of permethrin-treated bednets on house entry by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82, 49–55. , & (
- 1993) 7. Impact of permethrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 87, 45–52. , , , , , , & (
- 1989) Responses of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to the use of untreated bednets in The Gambia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 3, 253–262. , , & (
- 1991) Ability of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to transmit malaria during the dry and wet seasons in an area of irrigated rice cultivation in The Gambia. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 94, 313–324. , , , , & (
- 1991) Monitoring human-biting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with light traps hung beside mosquito nets. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 81, 77–84. , , & (
- 1994) Health and Irrigation. Incorporation of Disease-Control Measures in Irrigation, a Multi-Faceted Task in Design, Construction, Operation. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. , & (
- 1986) Agricultural development, migrant labour and the resurgence of malaria in Swaziland. Social Science and Medicine, 22, 861–867. (
- 1985) La transmission du paludisme en zone de savane arborée et en zone rizicole des environs de Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Annales de la Société Belge de Medécine Tropicale, 65 (Suppl. 2), 201–214. , , , , & (
- 1908) Report on the Prevention of Malaria in Mauritius. Waterlow and Sons, London. (
- 1976) Mosquito Ecology. Field Sampling Methods. Applied Science Publishers, London. (
- 1983) Mosquito production and species succession from an area of irrigated rice fields in The Gambia, West Africa. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 86, 237–245. (
- 1970) Effects of irrigation on mosquito populations and mosquito-borne disease in man, with particular reference to ricefield extension. International Journal for Environmental Studies, 1, 35–42. (
- 1970) Ricefield development and arbovirus epidemiology, Kano plain, Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 64, 511–518. , , & (
- USBC (2000) International Data Base, 2000. United States Bureau of the Census, Washington D.C. http://www.census.gov.
- 1974) Anopheles gambiae complex and disease transmission in Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 68, 278–301. (
- 1972) The Anopheles gambiae complex and malaria transmission around Kisumu, Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 66, 572–581. (
- WHO (1975) Manual on Practical Entomology in Malaria. 2 Volumes. World Health Organization, Geneva.
- 1987) Field evaluation of enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax sporozoites in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Papua New Guinea. Journal of Medical Entomology, 24, 433–7. , , & (
- WRI/IIED. (1986) World Resources. World Resources Institute & International Institute for Environment and Development. Basic Books, New York.
- WRI/UNEP/UNDP (1995) World Resources. A Guide to the Global Environment. People and the Environment. Oxford University Press, Oxford.