• Atlas;
  • distribution models;
  • geographical information systems;
  • generalized linear models;
  • habitat models;
  • Buteo buteo;
  • Circaetus gallicus;
  • Hieraaetus pennatus;
  • Milvus migrans;
  • Accipitridae;
  • road census


Aim  To test the effectiveness of statistical models based on explanatory environmental variables vs. existing distribution information (maps and breeding atlas), for predicting the distribution of four species of raptors (family Accipitridae): common buzzard Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758), short-toed eagle Circaetus gallicus (Gmelin, 1788), booted eagle Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin, 1788) and black kite Milvus migrans (Boddaert, 1783).

Location  Andalusia, southern Spain.

Methods  Generalized linear models of 10 × 10 km squares surveyed for the presence/absence of the species by road census. Statistical models use as predictors variables derived from topography, vegetation and land-use, and the geographical coordinates (to take account of possible spatial trends). Predictions from the models are compared with current distribution maps from the national breeding atlas and leading reference works.

Results  The maps derived from statistical models for all four species were more predictive than the previously published range maps and the recent national breeding atlas. The best models incorporated both topographic and vegetation and land-use variables. Further, in three of the four species the inclusion of spatial coordinates to account for neighbourhood effects improved these models. Models for the common buzzard and black kite were highly predictive and easy to interpret from an ecological point of view, while models for short-toed eagle and, particularly, booted eagle were not so easy to interpret, but still predicted better than previous distribution information.

Main conclusions  It is possible to build accurate predictive models for raptor distribution with a limited field survey using as predictors environmental variables derived from digital maps. These models integrated in a geographical information system produced distribution maps that were more accurate than previously published ones for the study species in the study area. Our study is an example of a methodology that could be used for many taxa and areas to improve unreliable distribution information.