• 1
    Simons FE, Simons KJ. The pharmacology and use of H1-receptor-antagonist drugs. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 16631670.
  • 2
    Cimbura G, Lucas DM, Bennett RC, Warren RA, Simpson HM. Incidence and toxicological aspects of drugs detected in 484 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario. J Forensic Sci 1982; 27: 855867.
  • 3
    Fireman P. Treatment of allergic rhinitis: effect on occupation productivity and work force costs. Allergy Asthma Proc 1997; 18: 6367.
  • 4
    Gilmore TM, Alexander BH, Mueller BA, Rivara FP. Occupational injuries and medication use. Am J Ind Med 1996; 30: 234239.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0274(199608)30:2<234::aid-ajim16>;2-y
  • 5
    Vuurman EF, Van Veggel LLM, Uiterwijk MM, Leutner D, O'Hanlon JF. Seasonal allergic rhinitis and antihistamine effects on children's learning. Ann Allergy 1993; 71: 121126.
  • 6
    Goldberg MJ, Spector R, Chiang CK. Transport of diphenhydramine in the central nervous system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1987; 240: 717722.
  • 7
    Yanai K, Okamura N, Tagawa M, Itoh M, Watanabe T. New findings in pharmacological effects induced by antihistamines: from PET studies to knock-out mice. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29(Suppl 3): 2936.
  • 8
    Okamura N, Yanai K, Higuchi M, et al. Functional neuroimaging of cognition impaired by a classical antihistamine, d-chlorpheniramine. Br J Pharmacol 2000; 129: 115123.
  • 9
    Yakuo I, Ishii K, Seto Y, et al. Pharmacological study of ebastine, a novel histamine H1-receptor antagonist. Folia Pharmacol Jpn 1994; 103: 121135.
  • 10
    Luria X. Comparative clinical studies with ebastine: efficacy and tolerability. Drug Saf 1999; 21(Suppl 1): 6367.
  • 11
    De Molina M, Cadahia L, Cano L, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of ebastine at two dose levels in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Drug Invest 1989; 1: 4046.
  • 12
    Gehannol P, Brémard-Oury C, Zeisser P. A double-blind multicenter randomized study comparing once daily oral administration of ebastine 20 mg, ebastine 10 mg, and cetirizine 10 mg for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults. Rhône-Poulenc Rorer (Collegeville). (Data on file).
  • 13
    Picado VC, Cadahia GA, Cistero BA, Cano CL, Sanz AA, Zayas SJM. Ebastine in perennial allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy 1991; 67: 615618.
  • 14
    Baba S, Mamiya S, Sakakura Y, et al. Clinical trial of LAS-90 on perennial allergic rhinitis: a double blind study in comparison with ketotifen fumarate [in Japanese]. Rinsho Iyaku 1994; 10: 11431162.
  • 15
    Kalis B, Brémard-Oury C. A 3-month double-blind comparative study of ebastine (10 mg o.d.), terfenadine (60 mg b.i.d.) and placebo in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Allergy 1995; 50(Suppl): 380.
  • 16
    Peyri J, Vidal J, Marrón J, et al. Ebastine in chronic urticaria: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Dermatol Treat 1991; 2: 5153.
  • 17
    Martinez-Tobed A, Tarrus E, Segura J, et al. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats, dogs and man. Drugs Today 1992; 28(Suppl B): 5767.
  • 18
    Yamaguchi T, Hashizume T, Matsuda M, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the H1-receptor antagonist ebastine and its active metabolite carebastine in healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung Drug Res 1994; 44: 5964.
  • 19
    Vincent J, Liminana R, Meredith PA, Reid JL. The pharmacokinetics, antihistamine and concentration-effect relationship of ebastine in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988; 26: 497502.
  • 20
    Hashizume T, Mise M, Terauchi Y, et al. N-Dealkylation and hydroxylation of ebastine by human liver cytochrome P450. Drug Metab Dispos 1998; 26: 566571.
  • 21
    Kukita A, Harada S, Yoshida H, et al. Phase III study of LAS-90 on chronic urticaria: double blind comparative study with ketotifen fumarate [in Japanese]. Rinsho Iyaku 1994; 10: 895912.
  • 22
    Roberts DJ, Gispert J. The non-cardiac systemic side-effects of antihistamines: ebastine. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29(Suppl 3): 151155.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2222.1999.0290s3151.x
    Direct Link:
  • 23
    Hoddes E, Zarcone V, Smythe H, Phillips R, Dement WC. Quantification of sleepiness: a new approach. Psychophysiology 1973; 10: 431436.
  • 24
    Peets EA, Jackson M, Symchowicz S. Metabolism of chlorpheniramine maleate in man. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1972; 180: 464474.
  • 25
    Matsuda M, Mizuki Y, Terauchi Y. Simultaneous determination of the histamine H1-receptor antagonist ebastine and its two metabolites, carebastine and hydroxyebastine, in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B 2000; 757: 173179.
  • 26
    Takagaki T, Matsuda M, Mizuki Y, Terauchi Y. A simple and sensitive method of chlorpheniramine maleate in human plasma using LC/MS. J Chromatogr B, in press.
  • 27
    Vincent J, Sumner DJ, Reid JL. Ebastine: the effect of a new antihistamine on psychomotor performance and autonomic responses in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988; 26: 503508.
  • 28
    Hopes H, Meuret GH, Ungethum W, Leopold G, Wiemann H. Placebo controlled comparison of acute effects of ebastine and clemastine on performance and EEG. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 42: 5559.
  • 29
    Brookhuis KA, De Vries G, De Waard D. Acute and subchronic effects of the H1-histamine receptor antagonist ebastine in 10, 20 and 30 mg dose, and triprolidine 10 mg on car driving performance. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 36: 6770.
  • 30
    Simons FE. H1-receptor antagonists. Comparative tolerability and safety. Drug Saf 1994; 10: 350380.
  • 31
    Nolen TM. Sedative effects of antihistamine: safety, performance, learning, and quality of life. Clin Ther 1997; 19: 3955.
  • 32
    Clarke CH, Nicholson AN. Performance studies with antihistamines. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1978; 6: 3135.
  • 33
    Aso T, Sakai Y. Effects of terfenadine on actual driving performance. Jpn J Pharmacol Ther 1988; 19: 681688.
  • 34
    Meador KJ, Loring DW, Thompson EE, Thompson WO. Differential cognitive effects of terfenadine and chlorpheniramine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989; 84: 322325.
  • 35
    Kulshrestha VK, Gupta PP, Turner P, Wadsworth J. Some clinical pharmacological studies with terfenadine, a new antihistamine drug. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1978; 6: 2529.