• corticotropin-releasing hormone;
  • hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis;
  • median eminence;
  • stress;
  • vasopressin


Single administration of the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1) or the psychostimulant amphetamine causes long-term sensitization of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, i.e. enhanced adrenocorticotropine hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses weeks later. HPA responses to these stimuli involve activation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons by noradrenergic projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In search of the underlying mechanisms, we studied the temporal pattern of HPA sensitization in relation to (1) the reactivity of noradrenergic projections to the PVN and (2) altered secretagogue production in hypothalamic CRH neurons. Single exposure to IL-1 or amphetamine induced cross-sensitization of ACTH and corticosterone responses 11 and 22 days later, but not after 42 days. Amphetamine-induced HPA sensitization was not accompanied by increased costorage of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in CRH terminals, as found previously after IL-1 pretreatment. The reactivity of noradrenergic terminals was assessed by measuring the electrically evoked release of [3H]-noradrenaline from superfused PVN slices. Single administration of amphetamine and IL-1 induced a long-lasting (up to 22 days) increase (up to 165%) of evoked noradrenaline release. This indicates that single exposure to psychostimulants or to cytokines can induce a long-lasting increase in stimulus–secretion coupling in brainstem noradrenergic neurons that innervate the PVN. This common, long-lasting functional change may underlie, at least in part, IL-1- and amphetamine-induced HPA cross-sensitization. In addition, increased AVP signalling by hypothalamic CRH neurons appears to play a role in IL-1-induced, but not in amphetamine-induced, HPA sensitization.