Modulation of cortico-cortical connectivity in specific neural circuits might underlie some of the behavioural effects observed following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human frontal cortex. This possibility was tested by applying rTMS to the left mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex (MDL-FC) and subsequently measuring functional connectivity of this region with positron emission tomography (PET) and TMS. The results showed a strong rTMS-related modulation of brain activity in the fronto-cingulate circuit. These results were confirmed in a parallel experiment in the rat using electrical stimulation and field-potential recordings. Future studies are needed to provide a direct link between the rTMS-induced modulation of cortical connectivity and its effects on specific behaviours.